By M. Guisnet, Jean-Pierre Gilson
This paintings, written and edited through major experts from academia and business teams, covers either preventive- and curative-zeolite-based applied sciences within the box of chemical processing. the hole bankruptcy offers the state of the art in zeolite technology. the 2 next chapters summarize the chemistries thinking about the tactics and the restrictions imposed at the catalyst/adsorbent. 3 significant components are coated: oil refining; petrochemicals; and high quality chemical substances. A bankruptcy at the (curative) use of zeolites in toxins abatement completes this evaluate. within the sector of oil refining, a basic lecture units the scene for current and destiny demanding situations. it's via in-depth case stories concerning FCC, hydrocracking and lightweight naphtha isomerization. additionally, a whole bankruptcy is dedicated to the often-overlooked topic of base oils. within the region of petrochemicals, the processing of aromatics and olefins is defined and specific cognizance is paid to the synergy among catalysis and separation on molecular sieves. incorporated is a bankruptcy at the dynamic box of oxidations. within the region of good chemical compounds, the rising box of zeolite functions is brought in a normal lecture and particular functions are mentioned.
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Additional resources for Zeolites for Cleaner Technologies
69 Reactions were completed in less than 1 min, aﬀording the six-membered ring systems 15 in excellent yields (92–99%) and with good stereoselectivity (endo/exo ratio from 78 : 22 to 100 : 0). However, we must note that, under the same reaction conditions, the use of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaﬂuorophosphate (bmimPF6) as solvent instead water resulted in even faster reactions (30 s). Probably the most important contribution of microwaves to cycloaddition chemistry has been in the ﬁeld of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of azides with alkynes and alkenes.
8) under an oxygen atmosphere (1 atm), produced DMSO2 quantitatively after 3 h of MW heating at 200 1C. Combined with MW-absorbing materials, such as granular activated carbon (GAC), microwave irradiation has been extensively used in the treatment of wastewater. 94–96 In particular, copper94,95 or platinum96 particles dispersed onto the surface of GAC can act as reaction centers for the degradation of paranitrophenol (PNP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). 6 wt% of Cu or Pt), under ambient pressure and continuous ﬂow mode using a microwave ﬁeld of 160–850 W.
36 As a general trend, alkynols with electron-withdrawing groups on the aryl substituents were less reactive than those with electron-rich substrates, requiring longer reaction times to reach satisfactory conversions. Remarkably, starting from secondary alcohols (R2 ¼ H) the corresponding enals were formed with complete (E )-stereoselectivity. It is also notable that the scope of the reaction is not restricted to substrates bearing terminal CRC bonds; internal propargylic alcohols (R3 ¼ Me, Ph) are also eﬃciently transformed into the corresponding enones.