Urolithiasis: Etiology · Diagnosis by H.-J. Schneider (auth.), Hans-Joachim Schneider (eds.)

By H.-J. Schneider (auth.), Hans-Joachim Schneider (eds.)

The guide on lithiasis edited via Kurt Boshamer and initially introduced out in 1961 used to be for greater than 20 years the normal paintings during this box for researchers and clinicians alike. besides the fact that, our knowl­ fringe of urolithiasis has been elevated so significantly - by way of around the globe interdisciplinary examine into the genesis of urinary calculi, via the hot remedy chances unfolded mostly by way of advances in tech­ nology, and through the good fortune completed in prevention of recurrence - that it really is virtually very unlikely to soak up all of the correct magazine articles, books chapters, monographs, and complaints. It used to be for that reason our goal during this, the 1st of 2 self sufficient vol­ umes, to supply a concise yet entire precis of present wisdom about the morphology and composition of calculi, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic recommendations. the main re­ cent advancements are defined, and not anything on the earth literature is neglected. A moment quantity will conceal scientific treatment, operative, in­ strumental and noninvasive remedy, and prophylaxis. To have any probability of good fortune, therapy and prophylaxis needs to be according to wisdom of calculus formation. examine of the composition of calculi has yielded very important information about the stipulations for formation, and this underlines once more the good price of analy­ sis of urinary concretions. assessment of epidemiological facts has im­ portant effects for the person patient.

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1980; CAVERO 1972, 1973, 1981, 1982; CIFUENTES DELATTE et al. 1973 b; KOLPAKOW and GUKl 1965 a; MEDINA et al. 1977; SCHAFER and DOSCH 1978; SEYFARTH et al. 1974, 1975; SUTOR and WOOLEY 1972b; SZABO 1973-, 1974). Thin section studies have also revealed transitions in the regular arrangement of crystallites in individual layers with a tendency to radiate structure. The same may occur within an irregular cobble-stone configuration (Fig. 36) (SEYFARTH et al. 1975). Scanning electron microscopic studies by DOSCH and KOESTEL (1975) and by HESSE et al.

2. Ash and Mass Elements The ash content is an important feature distinguishing uric acid, urate and cystine stones on the one hand and oxalate and phosphate calculi on the other. 6% representing the major components. All other elements are far less frequent than these two. There is no significant correlation between ash and calcium content of calculi (SCHNEIDER 1968 a). This is not surprising, since calcium oxalate (without water of crystallization), carbonate apatite, hydroxyapatite and whitlockite all contain a similar proportion of calcium at 31-39% by formula.

1973b), SCHAFER and DOSCH (1978), SCHUBERT et al. (1981) and SZABO (1973) in some detail. The scanning electron microscope reveals this metamorphosis ofweddellite to whewellite as involving the more or less pronounced formation of square scars on the pyramid surfaces of weddellite crystals, with strict orientation within the lattice geometry. The first transformation products to appear are gel forms of whewellite crystallisate which then undergo subsequent recrystallization to individual idiomorphous crystals.

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