Ultrasound-guided procedures and investigations: a manual by Armin Ernst, David Feller-Kopman

By Armin Ernst, David Feller-Kopman

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Example text

Doppler US transforms the sound waves reflected from vessels into amplified audio signals. Arteries are recognized by their high-pitched pulsatile signal, while veins produce a lower-pitched signal that varies with respiration. ), and the pencil-shaped probe (5–8). Two-dimension US converts the sound waves reflected from tissue into a gray scale image, where vessels appear as tubular structures filled with hypoechoic ‘‘dark’’ blood. Arteries appear pulsatile and are noncompressible by applied pressure.

Approximately 29%). Likewise, in a study by Raptopoulos et al. (20), the rate of pneumothorax complicating thoracentesis was 3% when ultrasound was utilized, as compared with 18% when the effusion was localized clinically. ’’ The occurrence of pneumothorax requiring tube thoracotomy was also significantly reduced with US guidance (2% vs. 7%). , having a radiologist use US to mark the needle insertion site with the thoracentesis performed when the patient returned to the floor, was not associated with a reduction in the pneumothorax rate (20).

Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147(2):430–434. 9. Hirsch JH, Rogers JV, Mack LA. Real-time sonography of pleural opacities. Am J Roentgenol 1981; 136(2):297–301. 10. Yang PC, Luh KT, Chang DB, Wu HD, Yu CJ, Kuo SH. Value of sonography in determining the nature of pleural effusion: analysis of 320 cases. Am J Roentgenol 1992; 159(1):29–33. 11. Chen KY, Liaw YS, Wang HC, Luh KT, Yang PC. Sonographic septation: a useful prognostic indicator of acute thoracic empyema. J Ultrasound Med 2000; 19(12):837–843.

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