By Alan Muir Wood
This publication covers all of the major facets of tunnelling: making plans; reviews which give a contribution to the viability of a tunnel undertaking; the technical points of layout; the administration of building; total venture administration; a overview of contemporary tunnel disasters; and concerns relating to dispute answer and prevention. the idea that of layout is outlined intimately and with regards to structures and to danger, the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the mess ups in 1994 of railway tunnels at Heathrow Airport.
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Extra resources for Tunnelling: Management by Design
Here ‘Informal’ implies a variability and Background to modern tunnelling 29 capability to respond to needs as these may vary between tunnels and between zones of a single tunnel. For the practice of tunnelling in yielding ground with light support, the description of Sprayed Concrete Lining (SCL) is used, following the lead of others (Institution of Civil Engineers 1997), with these features: • • • initial support designed on the basis of the composite behaviour of the ground and the support; a reliance on observation (including the use of appropriate instruments) as a basis for establishing adequacy of support (or, for circumstances where time allows, the need for supplementary support); unified management of the design/construction stages of excavation, initial support, monitoring and final lining.
Chapter 2 Design: the ubiquitous element “When I use a word”, Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less”. Alice Through the Looking Glass, Lewis Carroll. 1 The nature of design and its application to tunnelling Systems engineering, central to manufacturing industry and, in its widest sense, universal to all effective practical and political aspects of life, is a term little understood by civil engineers and hence is not commonly applied to tunnelling (Muir Wood 1996).
Two noteworthy early developments were in Switzerland, 1951–55, using Shotcrete for the Lodano-Losagno Tunnel for the Maggia hydroelectric project and the Snowy Background to modern tunnelling 27 Mountains Hydroelectric Project in New South Wales, Australia from 1952 (Lang 1961, Andrews et al. 1964, Dann et al. 1964, Moye 1965). Many others in many other countries have grasped the essence of the principles and applied it with success. Rabcewicz coined the title ‘New Austrian Tunnelling Method’ (NATM) in 1962 (Rabcewicz 1964) with an explanation: ‘…the author carried out during the (1939–45) war a new method called the “auxiliary arch” which consisted of applying a relatively thin concrete lining [a conventional in-situ lining of the time would be an unlikely candidate for the “observational method” then described] to the rock face as soon as possible, closed by an invert and intended to yield to the action of the protective zone [the name given by Rabcewicz to the rock adjacent to the tunnel].