Tropical fruit pests and pollinators : biology, economic by Jorge E. Peña, Jennifer Sharp, Manes Wysoki

By Jorge E. Peña, Jennifer Sharp, Manes Wysoki

Bugs and different pests reason significant fiscal harm on fruit vegetation within the tropics. even though, a few bugs are useful and feature a job in pollinating flora, hence permitting fruit set. This ebook studies those injurious and useful organisms and the way they could be managed to augment fruit creation and caliber.

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However, controls based on EPNs were not economically competitive with pesticides (Treverrow, 1993, 1994). , 1999). Most often, reported results reflect comparisons among a small number of clones used in field trials. Fogain and Price (1994), Ortiz et al. (1995), Anitha et al. (1996) and Kiggundu (2000) conducted screening trials to identify existing clones displaying resistance to banana weevil. The variability in findings may reflect, in part, differences in sampling methods in assessing weevil damage.

1999). These strains, isolated from a wide range of insects, as well as from Galleria baits, were predominantly B. bassiana and, secondarily, M. anisopliae. g. maize, rice), spore viability and storage, formulations (powders, water solutions, mineral oils), doses, application methods and mortality rates after varying time intervals. In spite of the variability in methods, laboratory studies conducted in many different banana-growing regions have consistently demonstrated high levels of weevil mortality (often exceeding 95%) to a large number of strains.

Gold et al. (Atwalira, Nakyetengu, Muvubu) that were not considered resistant. The banana weevil is a relatively sedentary insect living in perennial systems with an abundance of host plants. Kiggundu (2000) argued that it is unlikely that banana weevils might walk far looking for a suitable host. Most likely, tenure time at the base of any given mat and oviposition may be more related to environmental factors such as soil moisture. Available data indicate that the weevil will freely oviposit on both susceptible and resistant clones, suggesting that antibiosis plays the most important role in host plant resistance (Abera, 1997; Kiggundu, 2000).

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