By Richard A. Anthes
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Additional info for Tropical Cyclones: Their Evolution, Structure and Effects
8110M8. TOO MI. TIIOMB. 0 IOOte. 1-----... 0]) . . , _____, ___... 0 _ ..... 11. Vertical cross section of temperature anomaly for Hurricane Inez on 28 September 1966 (Hawkins and lmbembo, 1976). 949mbl x,' 300 P(mbl I I I I I I I X I I I I /;··· I 500 I I I I. ) f I I I ~ '' 'x. ·.. 800 900 1000 320 I X xl 400 700 ,' (Jordan,l961 l / I 600 ,' , Eye(939SP 200 ,x Mean. hurricane ( Sheets,l969 l 330 •x ··. I 1..... 'x ·······.......... 360 370 FIG. 12. Vertical profiles of equivalent potential temperature for mean tropical September sounding, mean hurricane within I 00 n mi of center, and mean eye of storms with 939 ~ Pmm ~ 949 mb.
For example, horizontal temperature gradients exceed I °C per I 0 km, and the wind shear is often greater than 5 m s-' per IO km. , warm updrafts and cold downdrafts, so that the bands produce kinetic energy. Gentry estimated that the kinetic energy production by the convective scales of motion within the band was comparable in magnitude to the kinetic energy produced by the large-scale circulation associated with the storm. It is likely, however, that much of this local generation of kinetic energy is offset by local dissipation associated with turbulence in the vicinity of the intense convection.
I) unless the cirrus canopy covers the top of the storm. 2 I STRUCTURE AND LIFE CYCLE OF TROPICAL CYCLONES 21 When the air rising in the eye wall is restricted by the strongly stable air in the stratosphere, it turns outward and flows away from the storm center. Although it is still rotating cyclonically in the upper levels near the center, conservation of angular momentum results in a rapid decrease of cyclonic rotation. Eventually the air acquires anticyclonic rotation (typically at a radius of 300 km).