Transmission Electron Microscopy of Minerals and Rocks by Alex C. McLaren

By Alex C. McLaren

Publication by means of McLaren, Alex C.

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Metal specimens are usually prepared by electropolishing techniques. For nonmetallic crystals, a variety of techniques have been developed. Chemical polishing has been used successfully for MgO, Ge, and Si, for example. If the crystals are brittle, the regions near the edges of crushed fracture fragments are often thin enough and extensive enough to be used, but the crystallographic orientation of the fragments is random unless the crystal possesses definite cleavage planes. This technique is commonly employed for high-resolution lattice imaging, for which only very small, thin areas are needed due to the high magnification used (> x 500,000).

Ll(8a,b), these characteristics are even more pronounced. 3. We assume the object is a one-dimensional grating specified by the object function g(x)9 which is given by Eq. 8(a). 8(b). First, we investigate the nature of the image formed using the only three beams corresponding to the spectra at fi = - ^ o , M = 0, and fi = +/i 0 - The height of the spectra at -/x 0 and +li0 relative to the spectrum at fi = 0 can be calculated from the equation of the dotted envelope. If the height of the spectrum at /x = 0 is taken as Afar, then the height of the spectra at -fi0 and +/*0 is 2Na/ic.

The coherence of the illumination is greatly increased by using a very much smaller condenser aperture than usual. In practice in the electron microscope, electrons are transmitted through the object near the edge. 5). The Fresnel fringe provides a satisfactory criterion for focusing if a suitable edge is available on the specimen. 7. 6), the specimen must be less than about 200 nm thick to be usefully transparent to 100-kV electrons. Observations at the limit of instrumental resolution require the specimen thickness to be about 10 nm at 100 kV.

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