By Richard G. Bromley (auth.)
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Extra resources for Trace Fossils: Biology, Taphonomy and Applications
Enlargement follows the pattern shown by Chaetopterus, a new leg being excavated in connection with the old V, the abandoned leg filling with sediment (Fig. 8a). In boxcores, Reineck et al. (1967) demonstrated spreiten associated with E. 4). This is chiefly the case in burrows of adult animals (Fig. 8b). The burrows clearly had shifted upwards and downwards, although a reason for this was not immediately obvious. 8 Echiurus echiurus. (a) Burrows of rapidly growing juveniles showing various means of enlarging the U, and reaching about l2cm into the substrate.
1 Grainsize The absolute grainsize and degree of sorting of the substrate are extremely important to the sediment-processing endobenthos. Sands and muds are different worlds for the animals that inhabit them. It is therefore proper that studies on endobenthic species or communities should include granulometric analyses of the burrowing medium. Alexander et al. (1993) placed many species of burrowing bivalves onto different seived size-fractions of sediment, and demonstrated several degrees of sensitivity to grain size in different species.
Modified after Ricketts and Calvin (1962), Morton and Miller (1968) and Sassaman and Mangum (1972). (1968) on a form having a physa, and Mangum (1970) on one having a pedal disc (the two types of distal end possessed by these anemones), the burrowing activity of these relatively simple animals is well understood. Anemones burrow using peristaltic waves of contraction of circular muscles, passing from tentacle crown to base. The basal disc is modified as a knob-like physa that can be inflated as a terminal anchor or made pointed for intrusion into the substrate (Fig.