Thermodynamics of the Earth and Planets by Douce A.P.

By Douce A.P.

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G. the water is held in a perfectly rigid container) and at constant pressure (the container is perfectly flexible and transmits atmospheric pressure), the temperature increase will be greater in the former case than in the latter. This is so because, if the volume is not allowed to change, then all the heat becomes thermal energy. On the other hand, volume increases at constant pressure, so that some of the heat becomes expansion work. In this case the increase in thermal energy, and hence in temperature, will be less than in the constant volume case.

The mass of each sphere is given by: 4 m = π λ3 ρ. 43) The dielectric strength of a material is defined as the intensity of the electric field, E, under which the material breaks down and starts conducting electricity. For example, lightning occurs when the dielectric strength of air is exceeded. In our example, the dielectric strength of the medium separating the spheres is what controls the maximum amount of charge that can be stored in them. We next state without demonstration the following relationship between the electric charge q in a sphere of radius λ and the intensity of the electric field, E, at the surface of the sphere E= q .

Glasser & Brooke Jenkins, 2000; Yoder & Flora, 2005), but chemical bonding in them is nonetheless a consequence of PATINO: “CHAP01” — 2011/2/17 — 17:34 — PAGE 31 — #31 Energy in planetary processes 32 the fact that, in order to break apart their crystalline structure, it is necessary to perform work against electrostatic forces. Electrostatic forces are also responsible for the divergence of the behavior of real gases from that predicted by the ideal gas EOS. For instance, real gases are able to condense as liquids but ideal gases are not.

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