The Rare Earth Elements: An Introduction by J.H.L. Voncken

By J.H.L. Voncken

This ebook offers with the infrequent earth parts (REE), that are a sequence of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide sequence of parts (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium).

They are fairly unknown to the broader public, regardless of their quite a few functions and their serious function in lots of high-tech functions, akin to high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen displays and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very powerful everlasting magnets (used for example in wind generators and hard-disk drives), or maybe in a clinical MRI application.

This publication describes the background in their discovery, the most important REE ore minerals and the main ore deposits which are shortly being exploited (or are deliberate to be exploited within the very close to future), the actual and chemical houses of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the functions of those components, their monetary facets and the influential cost-efficient position of China, and eventually the recycling of the REE, that is an rising field.

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The age of this area is Middle Proterozoic. The largest town is Springbok. Mineralization occurs in an ore vein, which is predominantly composed of monazite, with small amounts of allanite, REE-bearing xenotime, apatite and thorite. Mineralized material consists mainly of monazite enriched by cerium and lanthanum, but all rare earth elements are present, including yttrium. 5 wt% ZrO2. U3O8 occurs up to 600 ppm. Traces of gold are also present. 9. 7 Hoidas Lake, Canada The deposit is located in the southern part of the Rae province in northern Saskatchewan, Canada (Fig.

It must also be mentioned here that the Bayan Obo ores are not only REE-ores. There also is significant mineralization of iron ore (Fe) and of niobium (Nb). 13 %; and at least 48 million tons of rare earth oxides with an average grade of 6 % (Drew et al. 1990). The deposit was discovered in 1927. Mining, not for REE or Nb, but for iron began in 1957. 4 Dolomite rock is defined as a carbonate rock, containing calcite <50 %, dolomite >50 %. (Visser 1980). The term dolostone has been coined to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite, CaMg (CO3)2, but has not gained general acceptance.

Mineralization occurs in an ore vein, which is predominantly composed of monazite, with small amounts of allanite, REE-bearing xenotime, apatite and thorite. Mineralized material consists mainly of monazite enriched by cerium and lanthanum, but all rare earth elements are present, including yttrium. 5 wt% ZrO2. U3O8 occurs up to 600 ppm. Traces of gold are also present. 9. 7 Hoidas Lake, Canada The deposit is located in the southern part of the Rae province in northern Saskatchewan, Canada (Fig.

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