By Lourens De Vries, Robina De Vries-Wiersma
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Extra info for The Morphology of Wambon of the Irian Jaya Upper-Digul Area: With an Introduction to Its Phonology (Verhandelingen)
12 depicts the kind of experimental arrangement used for thermal lensing spectroscopy: an absorption spectrum is obtained by measuring the fraction of the incident beam that passes through an on-axis pinhole as a function of excitation wavelength. 46 LENS TUNABLE LASER TO AMPLIFIER I-------l~ AND RECORDER FOCUS Figure 12. Schematic of apparatus used in thermal lensing spectroscopy. The 'blooming' that arises as the laser is tuned through an absorption band of the sample causes a spreading of the beam diameter which is observed as a decrease in the intensity passing through the pinhole (Andrews, 1990).
The radiation field can also induce an atom in the higher energy state to make the transition 12) ~ 11), with simultaneous emission of a photon of frequency v. This process is referred to as stimulated emission. Its probability per second, dP21 /dt, may be written dB ---ll = B p(v) 21 ' dt (3) where B21 , the Einstein coefficient of induced (or stimulated) emission, is equal to BI2 in the case that the levels 11) and 12) have the same degeneracy. Stimulated emission is sometimes referred to as a coherent process.
Additionally, however, if the laser is arranged to be operating close to threshold then even a weak absorption (which can be viewed as an additional small loss process within the cavity) can have a dramatic effect on the overall gain and thus the output intensity. absorption celt Laser Etalon M2 fluoresc ence detector Figure 5. Intracavity absorption technique (Demtrtider, 1991). Xe-Cl 30 Hz Scan Control b Wavenumber [n CM-1 Figure 6. (a) Experimental arrangement used for recording cavity ring-down spectra of high overtone and combination bands of HCN.