By Mortimer M. Civan, Arnost Kleineller, Douglas M. Fambrough, Dale J. Benos
This quantity provides a simple consensus of ways the aqueous humor is shaped and exits in the course of the trabecular meshwork and canal of Schlemm. It offers a well timed replace to present wisdom of the molecular delivery mechanisms which underlie aqueous humor dynamics. additionally, it offers a concise description of the medical ways used for assessing those easy delivery methods. The publication emphasizes the phenomenon of the diurnal rhythm of aqueous humor formation, from either the scientific and molecular issues of view. This phenomenon offers the main indication that aqueous humor secretion is regulated. Key positive factors * Introduces the mechanisms of aqueous humor formation and outflow * Describes the scientific examine of aqueous humor dynamics * Exposes the learn methods presently utilized * Emphasizes the diurnal rhythm of aqueous humor secretion * presents know-how of unanswered questions
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Extra resources for From Secretion to Glaucom
A,, Fauss, D. , and Polansky, J. R. (1994). High affinity vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors on fetal human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells. Curr. Eye Res. 13,271-279. Delamere, N. , and King, K. L. (1992). The influence of cyclic AMP upon Na,K-ATPase activity in rabbit ciliary epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33,430-435. Delamere, N. , Socci, R. , and King, K. L. (1990). Alteration of sodium, potassiumadenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase.
Na ' ,K -ATPase 111. K'-ATPase IV. Molecular Characterization of the Chloride Channel CIC-3 and the Chloride Channel + Regulator, pInn, in the Ocular Ciliary Epithelium A. Structure of C1C-3 B. , a Putative CI Channel Regulator, from the Ocular Ciliary Epithelium V. Additional Transporter Genes Identified in the Ocular Ciliary Epithelium References 1. INTRODUCTION The ocular ciliary epithelium is a bilayer of neuroepithelial cells with a unique configuration in the mammalian eye, and possibly in the entire human body.
Na+,K*-ATPaseand Chloride Channel Genes 29 The a1 isoform has been found in all of the eukaryotic cells, whereas a 2 and a 3 are restricted to skeletal muscle, heart, retina and brain. The human isoforms a l , a2, and a3 exhibit 85% identity in their amino acid sequence. The new a4 isoform, found only in testis (Shamraj and Lingrel, 1994), exhibits 76-78% identity with the other a-subunits isoforms. The &subunit isoforms (01, 02, 03) share less homology (32-37%) among themselves. , 1996). Information on the expression of multiple a- and fl-subunit isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPaseisoforms in the ocular ciliary epithelium was obtained by applying several complementary approaches: (1) Northern blot hybridization analysis, (2) Western blot analysis, and (3) indirect immunofluorescence.