The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the by Angeliki E. Laiou, Roy Parviz Mottahedeh

By Angeliki E. Laiou, Roy Parviz Mottahedeh

The essays during this quantity display that at the jap seashores of the Mediterranean there have been wealthy, variegated, and significant phenomena linked to the Crusades, and complete figuring out of the importance of the flow and its impression on either the East and West needs to take those phenomena under consideration.

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16 See G. Dennis, “Byzantine Battle Flags,” ByzF 8 (1982): 51–63. [ 36 ] Defenders of the Christian People the emperor was called to imitate the Lord of heaven. Under God, he was to assure the well-being of his subjects and protect them from all dangers, within and without. The church had a different role. Jesus had told his followers that he could call upon legions of angels to save himself from death,17 but he did not do so, and neither would his church. Unlike its Latin sister, the Byzantine church left the call to arms and the waging of war, even against the most pernicious and destructive heretics and infidels, to the imperial government.

5:172–73. 15 He was a Khurasanian from Marw who came to Syria to study with the “jurist of Syria” par excellence, as al-Awza¯‘ı¯ was called; and he supported alAwza¯‘ı¯ in his dispute with the jurists of the H . ija¯z about the virtues of jiha¯d. It should be remembered that, because of the troubled internal state of the Islamic empire at the end of the Umayyad period, the central government of the caliphate neglected the frontier. It is in this context that al-Awza¯‘ı¯ and ‘Abd Alla¯h b. al-Muba¯rak wrote.

Paris, 1937–43), book 10, 5–11: vol. 2:205–36. 10 De laude novae militiae, in S. Bernardi opera, vol. 3, ed. J. Leclercq and H. M. Rochais (Rome, 1963), 204– 39, esp. chap. 3, p. 217; epistola 457, opera, vol. 8 (Rome, 1977), p. 433; et al. 8; vol. 2:218. Constantine Stilbes strongly criticized the Latin clergy for engaging in combat and killing the enemy, including other Christians, and for teaching that those who died in war went directly to heaven: J. Darrouze`s, “Le me´moire de Constantin Stilbe`s contre les Latins,” REB 21 (1963): 50–100, esp.

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