By Imogen Evans
How will we understand no matter if a selected drug, remedy or operation quite works, and the way good? How trustworthy is the facts? Are scientific trials really impartial? And is present study enthusiastic about the true wishes of sufferers? Such well timed and urgent questions are raised and addressed during this probing inquiry into smooth scientific learn, with far-reaching implications for day-by-day scientific perform and sufferer care. aimed toward either sufferers and execs, "Testing remedies" builds a full of life and idea frightening argument for greater, extra trustworthy, extra proper study, with impartial or 'fair' trials, and explains how sufferers can paintings with medical professionals to accomplish this very important objective.
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New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. huge resistance to comparing the new approach with radical surgery. Some doctors believed very firmly in one or other approach and patients clamoured for one or other treatment. The result was a massive delay in producing the crucial evidence about the merits and harms of the proposed new treatment compared with the old. Nevertheless, despite these difficulties, the surgical excesses were eventually challenged, both by surgeons who were unwilling to continue in the face of questionable benefits for their patients, and by outspoken women who were unwilling to undergo mutilating operations.
Users’ guides to the medical literature. XVII. How to use guidelines and recommendations about screening. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999;281:2029 33. should apply. So how does prostate cancer screening measure up? A raised blood level of a substance called prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is associated with an increased risk of death from prostate cancer. 38 However, it is clear that PSA testing can cause harm. Some men will be treated when their cancers are too advanced to be helped; others will be treated unnecessarily when they have the sort of prostate cancer that would never pose a danger to health or life.
EXTENDED RADICAL MASTECTOMIES During that time, the belief that ‘more is better’ led radical surgeons to carry out even more extensive operations, in which chains of lymph nodes under the collarbone and the internal mammary nodes under the breastbone were also removed. To get at the internal mammary nodes several ribs were removed and the breastbone was split with a chisel. Not content with that, some surgeons went so far as to remove the arm on the affected side and cut out various glands throughout the body (adrenals, pituitary, ovaries) to suppress the production of hormones that were believed to ‘fuel’ the spread of the tumour.