By Josef Kolb
An crucial typical paintings for everybody curious about construction with wooden. This paintings makes use of plans, schematic drawings, and images to teach the present and forward-looking nation of the know-how as utilized in Switzerland, a number one kingdom within the box of bushes building.
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Additional resources for Systems in timber engineering : loadbearing structures and component layers
58 I 59 15 Soffit lining 16 Vapour barrier, airtight membrane 17 Rafter extension 18 Thermal insulation 19 Secondary waterproofing layer, possibly additional insulation 20 Counter battens 21 Roof covering (tiles) bS Balloon frame, platform frame b5 10 Two basic forms Numerous new machine-based means of production supplanted conventional manual techniques to a large extent by the middle of the 19th century. Together with the much less expensive transport options that started to appear around the end of the 19th century, this led to new materials becoming available that had hitherto been inconceivable.
The wood for timber buildings must be dry, dimensionally accurate and straight. Dried and finger-jointed solid structural timber or Duo®, Duplex or Trio® beams (two or three laminations glued together) are therefore used instead. Compound sections with laminations finger-jointed separately are also suitable for suspended floor systems. Fig. a54 shows further types. Glued laminated timber The laminations for the production of glued laminated timber (glulam) members are covered in Switzerland by SIA 265 "Timber structures" and SIA 265/1 "Timber structures - Supplementary specifications", which are based on EN 1194 "Timber structures Glued laminated timber - Strength classes and determination of characteristic values".
The spacing of the studs on plan depends on the arrangement of doors and windows. The positions of larger (or pairs of) studs for carrying heavier loads from the roof or suspended floors must also be determined. The studs direct the forces vertically downwards. At the same time, the structure can be anchored to the foundations via the studs with fasteners capable of resisting tension. The normal spacing of studs in a standard wall lies between 800 and 1200 mm. In structural terms, the studs are also subjected to buckling and bending (wind loads).