By Günter Ramberger; International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering
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Additional info for Structural bearings and expansion joints for bridges
Und Andra, W. (1 960): Stutzprobleme der Hochstrassenbrucken. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau, 55(6), 121-32. , Natsukawa, K. and Ohira, T. (1984): Thermal behaviour of multispan viaduct in frame. In International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering, 12th Congress, Vancouver, Canada, 3-7 September. Building Research Establishment (1979) Estimation of thermal and moisture movements and stresses; Part 2, Digest 228, Watford. 13 References 47  Emerson M. (1977): Temperature differences in bridges: basis of design requirements.
1966): The frame action of a bridge deck supported on elastic bearings. Civil Engineering and Public Works Review 61(7 14), 67-72. Leonhardt, F. und Andra, W. (1 960): Stutzprobleme der Hochstrassenbrucken. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau, 55(6), 121-32. , Natsukawa, K. and Ohira, T. (1984): Thermal behaviour of multispan viaduct in frame. In International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering, 12th Congress, Vancouver, Canada, 3-7 September. Building Research Establishment (1979) Estimation of thermal and moisture movements and stresses; Part 2, Digest 228, Watford.
Creep can be considered using a reduced section area and a reduced moment of inertia, shrinkage by a substitute tensile force Nshacting on the free shrinking concrete. N\,, is a compression force acting on the composite cross-section. 1-4: Deflection under load Horizontal movements of expansion joints can also be caused by vertical movements of the abutments. They are caused by foundation settlements or by replacement of bearings (fig. 1-5). Statically indeterminate steel and composite bridges can be prestressed by intentional lifting and/or lowering at the bearings.