By P.H. Perkins
A wealth of modern examine into the ongoing deterioration of strengthened concrete constructions has resulted in a evaluation of equipment of research and service thoughts. This completely revised and up-to-date variation brings jointly the basic points of this all over the world challenge and gives suggestion on how investigations, prognosis and consequent remedial paintings might be conducted.
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Additional resources for Repair, protection and waterproofing of concrete structures
Proprietary repair mortars consisting of prepacked cement and aggregate often have a selected polymer latex included as a gauging liquid to which water must be added to provide the required workability. Other prepacked mixes have the polymer included in powder form. 8 WATER FOR MIXING CONCRETE AND MORTAR The relevant British Standard is BS 3148: Methods of test for water for making concrete (including notes on the suitability of the water). The water used for mixing concrete and mortar (also known as gauging water), should be free from compounds which injuriously affect the setting and hardening of the mix and/or have an adverse effect on the properties of the hardened concrete/mortar.
However, there is a reduction in compressive strength compared with a control mix of the same mix proportions and water/cement ratio. The actual reduction in compressive strength depends on a number of factors, but a figure of 4% for each 1% of air entrained is often used as a guide. It should also be noted that if the cement content of the mix exceeds about 350 kg/m3 difficulties are likely to arise in entraining the air. 05mm. Air entraining admixtures for use in mortars are covered by BS 4887: Part 1, in which they are referred to as ‘air-entraining (plasticizing) admixtures’.
The amount of water in the mix (usually referred to as the water/ cement ratio) is a vital factor in determining the strength, permeability and absorption of the concrete/mortar. 45; this is the free w/c which means the aggregates are saturated but surface dry. 1 The action of acids on Portland cement The cement is very vulnerable to attack by acids. The reaction between the Copyright 1997 Taylor & Francis Group acid and the cement takes place immediately the two (acid and hydrated cement) are in contact.