By C.E. Reynolds, J. Steedman

The hot variation of this classical reference has been thoroughly up to date to conform with the necessities of BS 8110. This useful layout advisor gains two hundred complete pages of tables and charts encompassing all points of structural research and strengthened concrete layout.

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Finite-difference methods are considered in detail in ref. 16: ref. 6 provides a useful introduction. 2 Collapse methods Unlike frame design, where the converse is true, it is normally easier to analyse slabs by collapse methods than by elastic methods. The two best-known methods of analysing slabs plastically are the yield-line method developed by K. W. Johansen and the so-called strip method devised by Arne Hillerborg. It is generally impossible to calculate the precise ultimate resistance of a slab by collapse theory, since such slabs are highly indeterminate.

12) that, for panels whose corners are held down, the midspan simplicity and directness of the original concept. A full bending moments obtained by the Grashof and Rankine method can be converted to approximately those obtained treatment of both the simplified and advanced strip theories is given in ref. 22. by more exact theory by multiplying by a simple factor. This method is applicable not only for conditions of free support A further disadvantage of Hillerborg's and, of course, Johansen's methods is that, being based on conditions at failure only, they permit unwary designers to adopt load distributions which may differ widely from those which may occur under working loads, and the resulting along all four edges but for all combinations of fixity on one to four sides with free support along the other edges; the bending moments at the supports are calculated by an extension of the Grashof and Rankine method but without the adjusting factors.

For the diagram of maximum positive bending moments in the spans, these theoretical positive bending moments are reduced by 10% or more where possible. 3. 3 MOVING LOADS ON CONTINUOUS BEAMS Bending moments caused by moving loads, such as those due to vehicles traversing a series of continuous spans, are most easily calculated by the aid of influence lines. An influence line is a curve with the span of the beam as a base, the ordinate of the curve at any point being the value of the bending moment produced at a particular section of the beam when a unit load acts at the point.

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