By A. Allen
This hugely winning ebook describes the history to the layout rules, equipment and strategies required within the layout technique for bolstered concrete buildings. the simple to stick with variety makes it an amazing reference for college students and pros alike.
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Extra info for Reinforced Concrete Design To Bs8110
Types I (normal), II (modified), and III (high early strength) cements, conforming to ASTM C150, all are used extensively, as are the air-entraining blends, Types lA, IIA, and lIlA. All give satisfactory results under specific local conditions if properly used. Type III cement is intended for use when high early strength is desired. Because high early strength can permit prestressing at an earlier than usual age, the time required to produce prestressed concrete members, especially under plant conditions, sometimes is reduced through its use.
I) Ci5 iii c: u:: 30 20 10 [7 1/ 10 / 20 V V / 30 40 Initial Stress Ratio = Fig. 2-11. 1 0 % Offset Stress fy Effect of jacking stress on the final stress of prestressing steel subjected to constant strain (relaxation). STEEL FOR PRESTRESSING I 27 In the fabrication of pretensioned concrete members, the tendons are stressed to a jacking stress, held at constant elongation for a period of time, and then released. At the time when the prestressing force is transferred to the concrete (tendons released), the stress in the tendons, ~, is less than the original jacking stress, Isj • This is due to the relaxation than has taken place in the interval between stressing and transfer.
Small diameter or relatively large surface area for the individual tendons to achieve good bond characteristics. Absence of dirt and lubricants on the surface. Straightness when uncoiled to facilitate handling and placing. No material known has all of these desirable qualities, but the high-strength steels currently used possess most of them. 2-15 Allowable Prestressing Steel Stresses The two most significant design criteria for prestressed concrete in the United States are the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, which is published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO 1989), and the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318 1989), published by the American Concrete Institute.