By Horst Aichinger, Joachim Dierker, Sigrid Joite-Barfuß, Manfred Säbel
This thoroughly up-to-date moment version of Radiation publicity and picture caliber in X-ray Diagnostic Radiology offers the reader with exact suggestions at the optimization of radiological imaging. the elemental actual ideas of diagnostic radiology are first provided intimately, and their software to medical difficulties is then conscientiously explored. the ultimate part is a complement containing tables of knowledge and graphical depictions of X-ray spectra, interplay coefficients, features of X-ray beams, and different elements proper to sufferer dose calculations. additionally, a complementary CD-ROM features a easy Excel dossier database protecting those elements that may be utilized in the reader’s personal courses. This booklet can be a useful reduction to scientific physicists while acting calculations on the subject of sufferer dose and snapshot caliber, and also will turn out valuable for diagnostic radiologists and engineers.
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Extra info for Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology: Physical Principles and Clinical Applications
Corresponding to the energy-spectrum of photons @E' the quantity Ka(E) is called the kerma-spectrum (see Fig. 2). Fig. 5 mm Al at a tube voltage of 80 k V. 5) }ltr(E) h were-p- p ... g. photons) in material of mass dm. The unit of kerma is the joule per kilogram. The special name of the unit ofkerma is the gray (Gy). 6) o Dosimetric measurements are carried out mostly with ionisation chambers; therefore the charge liberated per unit mass by the X-ray photons within the chamber air volume - the so-called exposure - is recorded.
Doses for organs at intermediate depth show a filtration dependence in between these two extremes. Additional filtration of the incident X-radiation (without changing the X-ray tube voltage) generally - with the exception of the special situation in mammography -leads to a reduction in image contrast. Fig. 5 shows that in mammography the image contrast, however, is improved with increasing thickness of the K-edge filter located at the X-ray tube output, although the HVL of the incident primary radiation is increased.
The following explanations and examples illustrate this statement. The possibility to display tissue structures in the image is caused by their different attenuation characteristics for X-radiation. e. the radiation becomes modulated by the structures within the patient's body. The depth of the modulation depends on the difference of the linear attenuation coefficients (see also Chap. 1), the thickness of the tissue structures and the exposure parameters selected. In the ICRU 44 document (ICRU 1989), the mass attenuation characteristics of various tissue substitutes (cf.