By L Ortega-Mora, B Gottstein, F Conraths, D Buxton
The farm ruminant that is on the center of cattle agriculture in Europe and the remainder of the realm, suffers significant financial loss each year because of reproductive dysgenesis. Protozoal ailments reason abortion in ruminants and as a result its prognosis is key in enhancing the wellbeing and fitness and welfare of farm cattle. This ebook is a collective attempt from foreign scientists fascinated about an european expense motion. rigorously chosen methodologies, provided in an easy and functional shape, potential laboratories can hold their examine out with precision..
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Extra resources for Protozoal Abortificients in Farm Ruminants: Guidelines for Diagnosis and Control
III. Anwendung von Flunixin Meglumin und endokrine Veränderungen. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 135, 333–344. , Kaufmann, C. and Janett, F. (1998) The influence of restraint stress on reproductive hormones in the cow. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 33, 255–260. , de Kruif, A. and Van Soom, A. (2000) Embryonic mortality and embryo–pathogen interactions. Animal Reproduction Science 60–61, 131–143. L. (2001) Physiological regulation of maternal behaviour in heifers: role of genital stimulation, intracerebral oxytocin release, and ovarian steroids.
A higher cut-off for defining a herd infected is used. For example, when all animals in a herd of 100 cattle are sampled with a test of 95% specificity, there is a high probability of testing one or more animals seropositive. It would be more relevant to define such a herd as seropositive when five or more animals test seropositive. A number of software programs (FREECALC, HERDACC) allow for the inclusion of test specificity and sensitivity when calculating sample size. Accuracy and Precision When a study is designed in which sampling is performed, accuracy and precision need to be considered.
34 • • Chapter 2 In matched case-control studies. In cohort studies. In addition, this software program provides modules on diagnostic tests, analytical observational studies and models. FREECALC and SURVEY TOOLBOX is an epidemiological probability calculator designed to assist in the planning and analysis of surveys to demonstrate freedom from disease, or surveys to detect disease. FREECALC has two modules: Sample Size Calculation and Analysis of Results. Commonly used approaches to demonstrating freedom from disease have either: (i) failed to take into account the imperfect nature of laboratory tests (sensitivity and specificity not equal to 1); or (ii) assumed infinite population sizes (or sampling with replacement).