By Utrcki L.A. (ed.)
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Extra resources for Polymer Blends Handbook 2 vols set
About 65% of polymer alloys and blends are produced by polymer manufacturers, 25% by compounding companies and the remaining 10% by the transformers. 1 Beneﬁts and Problems of Blending The following material-related beneﬁts can be cited: (i) Providing materials with full set of desired properties at the lowest price. (ii) Extending the engineering resins’ performance. (iii) Improving speciﬁc properties, viz. impact strength or solvent resistance. (iv) Offering the means for industrial and/or municipal plastics waste recycling.
It is important to remember that the ﬂow behavior of a multiphase system should be determined at a constant stress, not at a constant deformation rate. For miscible blends, the free volume theory predicts a positive deviation from the log-additivity rule, PDB. However, depending on the system and method of preparation, these blends can show either a positive deviation, negative deviation, or additivity [Utracki, 1989a]. Upon mixing, the presence of speciﬁc interactions may change the free volume and degree of entanglement, which in turn affect the ﬂow behavior [Steller and Ŧuchowska, 1990; Couchman, 1996].
Commercial alloys may comprise six or more polymeric ingredients. The increased number of components, n, increases the number of interfaces between them: N = n(n-1)/2. , such multicomponent copolymer as ethylene-glycidyl methacrylate, triglycidylisocyanurate, etc. Alternatively, one may carry a sequential blending, incorporating one polymer within another, then combining the pre-blends into the ﬁnal alloy, hence reducing the number of interfaces that must be controlled at any given time. While the reduction of the interfacial tension coefﬁcient, ν, is relatively easy by introduction of a macromolecular “surfactant”, the stabilization of morphology and improvement of the interphasial adhesion in the solid state, may not be so.