By Isaac Newton, Daniel Bernoulli, Colin MacLaurin, Leonhard Euler

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It is focused on all the conservative and some nonconservative dynamical systems with an immense, but finite, number of degrees of freedom and especially their characteristic Lagrangians. These basis functions are fundamental to all mathematical solution procedures that are usually classified as variational principles. Most of the nonconservative dynamical (or irreversible) systems are physical manifestations that can be adequately described by nonlinear partial differential equations, together with appropriate initial and boundary conditions.

During this period, leading mathematicians dominated that scientific branch. Quality standards were established to treat physical problems adequately and offer appropriate mathematical tools for their solutions. Thus, it is not accidental that physics is accessible with mathematical description and interpretation; it is the result of the careful selection of the topics and the phenomena to be observed. Thus, theories of classical mechanics were developed, applied, generalized, and recast by nearly every distinguished scientist with well-founded knowledge in mathematics.

4. Traditionally, the conviction prevails that geometrical and physical quantities are basically different (Falk, 1990, p. 111). A deeply rooted custom originated 18 1. Physics Today: Perspectives in the supposition that a physical object is always embedded in space and time. This bias was supported by the idea that all "true" physical quantities— that is, the nongeometric quantities—are properties only of matter. As a consequence, each physical system is incorporated in space and characterized by a definite interior separated from other systems or parts of the otherwise "empty" space.