By B. Velde (auth.), Dr. Bruce Velde (eds.)
Origin and Mineralogy of Clays, the 1st of 2 volumes, lays the basis for a radical examine of clays within the atmosphere. quantity 2 will take care of Environmental interplay. Going from soils to sediments to diagenesis and hydrothermal alteration, the publication covers the full spectrum of clays. The chapters on floor environments are of significant relevance in regard to environmental difficulties in soils, rivers and lake-ocean occasions, displaying the best interplay among residing species and the chemical substances of their habitat. The ebook is of curiosity to scientists and scholars engaged on environmental issues.
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Extra info for Origin and Mineralogy of Clays: Clays and the Environment
Celadonite/smectite 4. glauconiteinontronite chlorite: smectite kaolinite: smectite mica: chlorite These minerals are more commonly assoicated with the phase change from one of the components (smectite usually) to the other, 10 or 14 A. This change can be effected by a change in a chemical parameter, such as weathering, or by change in temperature, such as in burial diagenesis. 6 Sepiolite-Palygorskite These clay-sized minerals are not sheet silicates in the strict sense. They have a needle-like morphology.
N(Fe3+,Fez+,AI)z(Si,Fe3+)401O(OH)zxHzO, is a ferric mineral with minor substitution of Al and occasionally Mg ions in the octahedral site. These substitutions, as well as some substitution of ferric iron in the tetrahedral site for Si4+, give rise to the interlayer charge. e. Velde different types). The exact extent is not well known but it seems that there is a continuous sequence between the different types mentioned above. e. low charge phases. Unfortunately, not a great deal of information is available on exact ranges of composition for these minerals at present.
When three ions are present, the structure is called trioctahedral, and when two cations are present, it is called dioctahedral. These two types of octahedral occupancy are fundamental to the classification scheme for clay minerals. The diagramatic figure for the octahedral polygonal unit is usually a diamond (dashed line in Fig. 8). This indicates the complex 6-fold coordination of the octahedrally coordinated cations. The anions are not exclusively oxygens but also hydroxyl groups. 3 Layer Structures Through Linkage In clay mineral structures, the tetrahedra do not occur alone.