Optical imaging and aberrations. / Part I, Ray geometrical by Virendra N. Mahajan

By Virendra N. Mahajan

This ebook examines how aberrations come up in optical platforms and the way they have an effect on optical wave propagation and imaging in keeping with geometrical and actual optics. It makes a speciality of recommendations, actual perception, and mathematical simplicity, meant for college kids and pros. Figures and drawings illustrate recommendations and increase clarity. This publication turns out to be useful as a textbook, reference, or tutorial.

Contents

- Preface
- Acknowledgments
- Symbols and Notation
- Gaussian Optics
- Radiometry of Imaging
- Optical Aberrations
- Geometrical Point-Spread Function
- Calculation of basic Aberrations: Refracting Systems
- Calculation of basic Aberrations: Reflecting and Catadioptric Systems
- Calculation of fundamental Aberrations: Perturbed Optical Systems
- Bibliography
- Index

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Extra info for Optical imaging and aberrations. / Part I, Ray geometrical optics

Sample text

Since the surface is spherical, it does not have a unique vertex. However, for a surface of a certain size, its central point defines its vertex. We first consider the imaging of an axial point object P0 lying at a distance S from V. An object ray P0 Q incident at a point Q on the surface at a height x from the optical axis is refracted as a ray QP¢0 intersecting the optical axis at a point P0¢ at a distance S ¢ from V. , the angles of the incident and refracted rays from the surface normal QC at the point of incidence Q) be q and q ¢ , 16 GAUSSIAN OPTICS n n¢ Q q q¢ x b0 (–)f V (–)b¢0 OA P0 C P¢0 R (–)S S¢ Figure 1-7.

The Lagrange invariant nh␤0 Æ - nx0 ␤ for an object lying at infinity at an angle ␤ from the optical axis of a system. The object lies at a very large distance z; hence, it does not matter whether the reference point for this distance is the object-space principal point or the vertex of the first surface of the system. When an object lies at infinity at a certain angle ␤ from the optical axis, then h Æ • and ␤0 Æ 0 , but the product h␤0 remains finite. Consider, as illustrated in Figure 1-23, an object lying at a very large distance z from an optical system.

1. Ray 1 incident parallel to the optical axis passes through the image-space focal point F ¢ after refraction. 2. Ray 2 incident in the direction of the center of curvature C of the refracting surface is refracted by it without any deviation. This is because the angle of incidence of the ray is zero; hence, the angle of the refracted ray is also zero. 3. Ray 3 incident passing through the object-space focal point F is refracted parallel to the optical axis. Extension of one or more of these rays may be necessary for them to intersect with each other.

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