By M. J. N. Sibley (auth.)
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Is required. 2). Different manufacturing methods will produce lower water concentrations. 8 ppb. 2 dB/km. ) can cause additional loss. If these metals are present in concentrations of 1 ppb, then the attenuation will increase by about 1 dB/km. In telecommunications-grade fibre, the loss due to transition metal ion impurities is usually insignificant in comparison with the OH loss. 2 Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh scattering results from the scattering of light by small irregularities in the structure of the core.
If Oi is the maximum angle of incidence, then the numerical aperture, NA, of the waveguide is equal to the sine of oj. We can find the NA by applying Snell's Law to ray2. 75) A large NA results in efficient coupling of light into the waveguide. However, a high NA implies that n 1 ~ n2 which results in a large amount of modal dispersion, so limiting the available bandwidth. 3 Propagation in optical fibres So far we have only considered propagation in an infinite dielectric block and a planar dielectric waveguide.
Such confinement can be achieved by forming a junction between two dissimilar band-gap materials - a heterojunction - which results in certain carriers experiencing a potential step, so inhibiting them from travelling farther through the lattice. In order to confine both holes and electrons, we must use two heterojunctions, the so-called double-heterojunction, or DH structure. Although most LEDs and lasers use this structure, we shall initially examine a single heterojunction, or SH, diode. 3 shows the energy diagram of a SH diode.