Nurse's 3-minute clinical reference by Springhouse

By Springhouse

The Nurse's 3-Minute scientific Reference is equipped into 4 sections—Disorders, remedies, Procedures, and Diagnostic Studies—with entries inside each one part equipped alphabetically. each one Disorders and Procedures access is six columns on a two-page unfold; each one Diagnostic Studies and Treatments access is 3 columns on one web page. details is supplied in short bulleted points.

Part I covers greater than three hundred acute and persistent illnesses together with the latest stipulations comparable to metabolic syndrome. half II covers greater than 50 remedies; half III, greater than seventy five methods; and half IV, greater than one hundred thirty diagnostic checks. Entries in every one part persist with a constant format.

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Brain tissue reflects three distinguishing features: neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques, and granulovascular degeneration. ▪ History obtained from a family mem- Causes ▪ Risk factors ▪ ▪ ▪ Unknown N E U R O C H E M I C AL ▪ Deficiencies of neurotransmitters E NVI R O N M E NTAL ▪ Aluminum and manganese ▪ Trauma ▪ Genetic abnormality on chromosome 21 ▪ Slow-growing central nervous system viruses Incidence ▪ Severe form in patients over age 65 ▪ Mild to moderate dementia in 12% of ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ patients Common characteristics ▪ Gradual loss of recent and remote ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ memory Loss of sense of smell Flattening of affect and personality Difficulty with learning new information Deterioration in personal hygiene Inability to concentrate Increasing difficulty with abstraction and judgment Impaired communication Loss of coordination Inability to write or speak Nocturnal awakenings Signs of anxiety Loss of eye contact and fearful look Acute confusion, agitation, obsessivecompulsive behavior 24 DISORDERS: Alzheimer’s disease ber or caregiver Insidious onset; initial changes almost imperceptible Forgetfulness and subtle memory loss Recent memory loss Difficulty learning and remembering new information General deterioration in personal hygiene Inability to concentrate Tendency to perform repetitive actions and experience restlessness Negative personality changes (irritability, depression, paranoia, hostility) Nocturnal awakening Disorientation Suspicious and fearful of imaginary people and situations Misperceives own environment Unable to identify objects and people Complains of stolen or misplaced objects Labile emotions Mood swings, sudden angry outbursts, and sleep disturbances Physical findings ▪ Impaired sense of smell (usually an ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ early symptom) Impaired stereognosis Gait disorders Tremors Loss of recent memory Positive snout reflex Organic brain disease in adults Urinary or fecal incontinence Seizures Test results ▪ Diagnosed by exclusion; tests are performed to rule out other diseases.

Plan activities so that the patient has sufficient rest between them. , monitor the infusion rate carefully and observe for an allergic reaction. M. to pre- vent skin discoloration, scarring, and irritating iron deposits in the skin. V. sites. Monitoring ▪ Vital signs ▪ Compliance with prescribed iron supplement therapy ▪ Iron replacement overdose (see Recognizing iron overdose) ᮣ PATI E NT TEAC H I N G Be sure to cover: ▪ disorder, diagnosis, and treatment ▪ possible complications ▪ dangers of lead poisoning, especially if the patient reports pica ▪ importance of not stopping therapy even if the patient feels better ▪ absorption interference with milk or antacid of iron supplementation ▪ increased absorption with vitamin C ▪ avoidance of staining teeth by drinking liquid supplemental iron through a straw ▪ when to report adverse effects of iron therapy ▪ basics of a nutritionally balanced diet ▪ protection against infections because a weakened condition may increase susceptibility ▪ when to report signs of infection ▪ need for regular checkups ▪ compliance with prescribed treatment.

Serum reticulocyte count is low because young cells die in the marrow. I N H E R E D ITARY S I D E R O B L A STI C AN E M IA D IAG N O STI C P R O C E D U R E S ▪ Ringed sideroblasts on microscopic examination of bone marrow aspirate stained with Prussian blue dye confirms the diagnosis. ) Incidence ▪ Most prevalent in young males; females are carriers, but usually show no signs of disorder ▪ Appears to be transmitted by X-linked inheritance ▪ Primary acquired form most common in elderly people, but occasionally develops in young people Common characteristics ▪ Anorexia and fatigue ▪ Systemic signs of anemia Complications ▪ Severe cardiac, hepatic, splenic, and pancreatic disease ▪ Acute myelogenous leukemia 40 ◆ DISORDERS: Anemia, sideroblastic RINGED SIDEROBLAST Electron micocroscopy shows large iron deposits in the mitochondria that surround the nucleus, forming the characteristic ringed sideroblast.

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