By Herbert Marcuse, Steffen G. Bohm, Jeremy J. Shapiro
Herbert Marcuse's Negations is either a thorough critique of capitalist modernity and a version of materialist dialectical pondering. In a chain of essays, initially written within the interval stretching from the Nineteen Thirties to Sixties, Marcuse takes up the presupposed different types that experience, and proceed to, flooring suggestion and motion in our administered society: liberalism, industrialism, individualism, hedonism, aggression. This publication is either a testomony to a very good philosopher and a nonetheless very important strand of suggestion within the comprehension and critique of the trendy geared up global. it's crucial studying for more youthful students and an intensive reminder for these steeped within the culture of a severe thought of society. With a brilliance of notion mixed with an insistence at the fabric stipulations of suggestion and motion, this e-book speaks either to the actual contents engaged and to the basic grounds of any critique of equipped modernity.
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Additional info for Negations: Essays in Critical Theory
And since Aristotle, in the last book of the Nichomachean Ethics, inseparably linked the question of man’s ‘happiness’ to the question of the ‘best state’, essentially grounding ‘politics’ and ‘ethics’ in each other (with the former as the fulfilment of the latter), we know that freedom is an eminently political concept. Real freedom for individual existence (and not merely in the liberalist sense) is possible only in a specifically structured polis, a ‘rationally’ organized society. In consciously politicizing the concept of existence, and deprivatizing and deinternalizing (Ent-lnnerlichung) the liberalist, idealist conception of man, the totalitarian view of the state represents progress – progress that leads beyond the basis of the 27 Negations totalitarian state, propelling the theory beyond the social order that it affirms.
This anthropology then took on the job of furnishing a philosophical foundation for the ideal of man projected by heroic realism. 22 Struggle Against Liberalism in Totalitarianism The theoretical man to whom the value concepts currently in circulation refer is a fiction. e. 52 A total activation, concretization, and politicization of all dimensions of existence is demanded. The autonomy of thought and the objectivity and neutrality of science are repudiated as heresy or even as a political falsification on the part of liberalism.
But liberalist rationalism already contains, preformed, those tendencies that later, with the change from industrial to monopoly capitalism, take on an irrationalist character. 22 In what follows we have only worked out the fundamental irrationalist tendency of the social theory that we have taken as our theme. ‘Irrationalism’ is a counterconcept; in order to understand an essentially irrationalist worldview, it is necessary to construct an ‘ideal-type’ of a rationalist view of society. e. to the human faculty of comprehending, through conceptual thought, the true, the good, and the right.