Multi-wave Electromagnetic-Acoustic Sensing and Imaging by Fei Gao

By Fei Gao

This thesis covers a vast diversity of interdisciplinary themes pertaining to electromagnetic-acoustic (EM-Acoustic) sensing and imaging, commonly addressing 3 points: primary physics, serious biomedical purposes, and sensing/imaging procedure layout. From the elemental physics point of view, it introduces numerous hugely fascinating EM-Acoustic sensing and imaging equipment, which may in all likelihood offer larger sensitivity, multi-contrast power, and higher imaging functionality with much less distortion. From the biomedical functions viewpoint, the thesis introduces helpful ideas particularly designed to deal with chosen tough biomedical functions, supplying wealthy distinction, larger sensitivity and finer spatial solution. either phantom and ex vivo experiments are provided, and in vivo validations are progressing in the direction of genuine scientific software eventualities. From the sensing and imaging process layout standpoint, the e-book proposes numerous promising sensing/imaging prototypes. extra, it deals concrete feedback which may deliver those platforms towards turning into “real” items and commercialization, comparable to changing high priced lasers with transportable laser diodes, or integrating transmitting and knowledge recording on a unmarried board.

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15 mm grid size. 1 µs pulse-width is assigned to every unit 32 -15 (a) -10 Y [mm] Fig. 15 a 2D simulation model of a single small tumor for both numerical and circuit simulation approaches. 25mm 0 1 2 20 Sensor locaƟon 5 10 15 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 X [mm] (b) 2 Normalized intensity Sensor location 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time step 2 Normalized intensity (c) Sensor location 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time step source in the circuit model, assuming the homogeneous microwave illumination on the region of interest.

17 a 2D simulation model of one tumor and one acoustic scatterer for both numerical and circuit simulation approaches. 25mm 20 Sensor Location 5 10 15 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 X [mm] 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 10 12 14 16 Normalized intensity (c) Sensor location Sensor location (b) 8 10 12 14 16 18 18 20 20 Time step Time step 1. To include the EM wave propagation and scattering effect, another set of circuit models should be developed to deal with the EM wave equations. Especially in heterogeneous tissue, EM wave diffraction and diffusion will result in uneven EM energy distribution and absorption, which is close to the real biological tissue environment.

Here two ideal amplifiers with tunable delay and attenuation parameters are employed to model the bi-directional acoustic propagations. To define the two parameters, we assume that the grid size (distance between two adjacent grids) is dgrid (mm), and the acoustic attenuation is agrid (dB/mm). Then the delay and gain parameters of the amplifier in the circuit model are obtained by: delay ¼ dgrid =c ðlsÞ attenuation ¼ agrid dgrid ðdBÞ; ð2:45Þ where c is the acoustic velocity (*1500 mm/µs in soft tissues).

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