MRI Basic Principles and Applications by Brian M. Dale, Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka

By Brian M. Dale, Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka

This 5th variation of the main obtainable advent to MRI rules and purposes from popular lecturers within the box presents an comprehensible but complete update.

  • Accessible introductory advisor from well known lecturers within the field
  • Provides a concise but thorough advent for MRI concentrating on primary physics, pulse sequences, and scientific purposes with out offering complicated math
  • Takes a pragmatic method, together with updated protocols, and helps technical recommendations with thorough causes and illustrations
  • Highlights sections which are without delay correct to radiology board exams
  • Presents new details at the most recent test recommendations and purposes together with three Tesla entire physique scanners, issues of safety, and the nephrotoxic results of gadolinium-based distinction media

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2. A time ␶ elapses, insufficient for complete T1 relaxation. The longitudinal magnetization at the end of ␶, MЈЈ, is less than in step 1. qxd 5/16/2004 24 8:38 AM Page 24 MRI Basic Principles and Applications Figure 3-2 Following a 90° rf pulse, longitudinal magnetization is regenerated via T1 relaxation. If the time between successive rf pulses ␶ is insufficient for complete recovery of M, then only MЈЈ will be present at the time of the next rf pulse (a). If time ␶ elapses again, then only MЈЈЈ will be present (b).

Smaller FOVROs are achieved by increasing GRO, Figure 4-4 Readout process. Following excitation, each proton within the excited volume (slice) precesses at the same frequency. During detection of the echo, a gradient (GRO) is applied, causing a variation in the frequencies for the protons generating the echo signal. The frequency of precession ␻i for each proton depends upon its position xi, according to Equation 4-2. Frequencies measured from the echo are mapped to the corresponding position. qxd 5/16/2004 8:39 AM Page 39 Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Part 1 39 Figure 4-5 In any image, one of the visualized directions is the readout direction and the other is the phase-encoding direction.

The central frequency of the pulse determines the particular location excited by the pulse when the slice selection gradient is present. Different slice positions are achieved by changing the central frequency. The slice thickness is determined by the gradient amplitude GSS and the bandwidth of frequencies ⌬␻SS incorporated into the rf pulse: ⌬␻ = ␥⌬(GSS * Thickness) [4-3] Typically, ⌬␻ is fixed so that the slice thickness is changed by modifying the amplitude of GSS (Figure 4-1). Thinner slices require larger GSS.

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