By Roger G. Barry
Totally revised and up to date, the second one version of Mountain climate and weather keeps to supply the coed and researcher with the definitive reference and consultant to climate approaches during this advanced terrain. effects from fresh investigations and different examine are included during this version, and all proper new literature is totally referenced.
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However, this hypothesis is not fully in accord with Storr’s finding that the excess was greater at 0500 LST than at 1700 LST at half of the sites in June and July 1967. Further studies of this problem are still needed. In mountains with permanent snow and ice cover, the slope-free air difference in vapour content will decrease above the zone of glacier ablation—the firn line-since there is no longer a moisture source (Kuz’min 1972: 122). Vapour pressure is important climatically in three ways.
Evans, Colorado, gave 1349 W m−2 (Hand et al. 1943), both very close to the modern value derived from satellite measurements (see note 1, p. 96). High mountain sites continue to be useful for radiation studies. 68 cal cm−2 min−1) when corrected to mean solar distance. Ångstrøm (1900). Abbott and Fowle (1908) and Bishop et al. (1966). The difference between this and the solar constant is accounted for by upper atmospheric absorption. Some of the most extensive studies of altitudinal effects on solar radiation have been made in the European Alps.
Third, it affects the total air density inversely, and this may also be important biologically in terms of the hypoxic effects of oxygen deficiency at high altitudes. The fact of a vapour pressure excess in the mountain atmosphere should act to lower the condensation level, other factors remaining constant. It will also tend to reduce the transmission of infra-red radiation, by comparison with the free air, thereby leading to higher atmospheric temperatures (Storr 1970). 5 Annual averages and range of monthly means of absolute humidity (g m−3) as a function of altitude in tropical South America Notes: Station data, free-air radiosonde values, and gradients calculated from Linke's equation are shown Source: After Prohaska 1970 Solar radiation Mountain observatories were of special importance in early studies of solar radiation and the solar constant—the average flux of solar radiation received on a surface perpendicular to the solar beam outside of the earth’s atmosphere at the mean distance of the earth from the sun.