By Michael Gaft, Renata Reisfeld, Gerard Panczer
The publication is dedicated to 3 varieties of laser-based spectroscopy of minerals, particularly Laser-Induced Time-Resolved Luminescence, Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy and Gated Raman Spectroscopy. This re-creation provides the most new information, that have been got after the ebook of the 1st version ten years in the past either by way of the authors and by way of different researchers. in this time, in simple terms the authors released greater than 50 unique papers dedicated to laser-based spectroscopy of minerals. loads of new info were collected, either in primary and utilized features, that are awarded in new version.
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Additional resources for Modern Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials
1 The Concept of the Ligand Field Most of the electronic spectroscopy in minerals can be interpreted by the wellknown ligand field theory. The main luminescence centers in minerals are transition and rare-earth elements. The ground and excited levels in these cases are d and f orbitals, while d-d and d-f emission transitions are subjected to strong influence from nearest neighbors, so called ligands. The basic notion of a ligand field was first developed many years ago (Bethe 1929). It was supposed that the ions are undeformable spheres and the interactions, which take place between them, are due solely to the electrostatic potentials set by their charges.
1 Io 1 À αðλÞ ¼ ‘n ¼ ‘n T À1 t t IT ð2:5Þ The absorbance is defined as: log10 Ic IT ð2:6Þ In optical spectroscopy a sample is illuminated by monochromatic light with a varying wavelength. The optically active centers rise from the ground to the excited states with resulting appearance of the absorption band in the optical spectrum. Useful information may be obtained from the absorption spectroscopy, which reveals the excited energy levels. Nevertheless, it has to be noted that absorption technique is much less sensitive compared to luminescence.
Stimulated (or induced) emission can occur in the presence of light of the correct transition energy, incident upon the sample, acting as a stimulant for it to emit a photon of the same energy: 18 2 Theoretical Background À À M* þ h v c ! M þ 2 v c: ð2:10Þ Rate of induced emission in populating the state: ÀÀ Á f ¼ À Nf Bfi ρ v ; ð2:11Þ where Bfi is the Einstein coefficient of induced emission. 1 The Concept of the Ligand Field Most of the electronic spectroscopy in minerals can be interpreted by the wellknown ligand field theory.