By Ali Dinar Abdullah
This booklet reviews the 1st systematic tracking and modelling research on water availability, water caliber and seawater intrusion of the Shatt al-Arab River (SAR) at the border of Iraq and Iran, the place explanations and focus degrees of salinity haven't but been absolutely understood, not to mention addressed, resulting in conflicting perceptions of its starting place (external or internal), the common stipulations and the practices which could clarify the present severe stipulations. present clinical wisdom at the SAR salinity challenge is poor, in part as a result of complicated and dynamic interplay among marine and terrestrial salinity assets, together with go back flows by way of water clients of the various water sectors within the Euphrates and Tigris rivers upstream of the SAR.
The improvement of a brand new sequence of tracking stations and diverse modelling techniques helped to higher comprehend the interactions among those diverse resources. the great and distinct dataset shaped the root for a tested analytical version that could are expecting the level of seawater relative to different salinity assets in an estuary, and for a hydrodynamic version which may are expecting salinity adjustments. The adaptability of the types to altering stipulations makes them without delay appropriate by means of water managers. The process might be utilized to different similar systems.
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Extra info for Modelling approaches to understand salinity variations in a highly dynamic tidal river : the case of the Shatt al-Arab River
The Tigris experiences a similar flow variation. 5 × 109 m3/yr. 1 × 109 m3/yr. Figure 3-1 clearly shows the significant decreasing trend in the annual flows of both Euphrates and Tigris rivers over the period 1933–2011, which is attributed to water withdrawals for human uses. The sum of water flows from the two rivers is much less than Iraq’s projected water requirements in 2015 of 67 × 109m3/yr, as estimated by the MoWR and IEA (IEA, 2012). 2 Seasonal flows variation The Tigris is characterized by high seasonal flow variation, as well as spatially along the river.
At the downstream part, Iranian wastewater reaches the SAR through the shared marshlands (Hawizeh Marshes). In addition, the SAR receives sewage and industrial wastewater produced inside Basra province, Iraq. Several large factories, a paper mill, power stations, petrochemical industries, and refinery plants located along both sides of the river are known to discharge processed water. There are six creeks in the province and its surroundings are used as combined open sewage and storm drains that directly flow into the SAR.
Selected water quality parameters. 1 Parameter PH 2 Temperature °C physical 3 Dissolved oxygen (DO) % chemical 4 Na mg/l chemical 5 mg/l chemical 6 Magnesium (Mg) Ca mg/l chemical 7 Cl mg/l chemical 8 Sulphate (SO4) Nitrate (NO3) mg/l chemical mg/l chemical mg/l chemical NTU physical 9 10 11 Phosphate (PO4) Turbidity Unit Type chemical Description It measures the acidity or basic quality of water It is a controlling factor for the health of the river and can affect the other factors It measures the amount of the gaseous oxygen which is important for aquatic life; it can be used as indicator for organic pollution Sodium compounds are the most responsible for the salinity of the river and ocean.