By M. F. Bukhina, S. K. Kurlyand
Result of the reports of 2 top Russian researchers within the box in addition to of alternative Russian and overseas experts are provided during this booklet. the character and improvement of 2 actual approaches - glass transition and crystallization determinig low-temperature behaviour of elastomers are into consideration in reference to the constitution and composition of elastomeric fabrics. the consequences of deformation, strain and temperature on those methods are seen. The contribution of alternative components in frost-resistance of elastomeric fabrics and articles is mentioned in addition. particular beneficial properties of low-temperature behaviour of all existent rubbers are systemized. additionally, the chances of accelerating the frost-resistance of other varieties of elastomeric fabrics and articles through optimization of composition and layout are thought of.
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Additional info for Low-temperature Behaviour of Elastomers (New Concepts in Polymer Science)
NMR data are also useful for understanding the changes of the low-temperature resistance of elastomers in the presence of a plasticizer [431, 511, 512]. The specific action of crystallizable plasticizers has been studied insufficiently [330, 509, 592]. It is known that during the introduction of crystallizable plasticizers Tg of rubbers decreases below the melting temperature of the plasticizer itself. This is due to the change of the crystallization conditions of the plasticizer in the rubber, where the size of its crystals is limited by the three-dimensional network and the presence of a filler (similar to how the size of the crystals in crystallizable rubbers is limited, see Chapter 3).
35) where N is the number of chain ends and A is a constant. Concluding the analysis of the results on the effect of M on Tg, let us recall that usually rubbers have molecular masses of hundreds of thousands, and the number of fractions with M < Mf is vanishing. Therefore, Tg of such polymers virtually does not depend on Mn , as is seen, in particular, from the data of Fig. 12 . 2 Effect of the structure of macromolecules The value of Tg is related to the flexibility of macromolecules, which is determined by the energy barrier of the rotation around the main valent bonds ('U).
However, such comparisons are difficult to make, as changes of composition, in particular, of the vulcanizing group, and the density of crosslinks, of a filler, of its amount, as well as the type and amount of plasticizer significantly change the value of T. Still, knowledge of this effect is necessary, because both Tlowl and 'Tlow in eq. 1), as the values of the low-temperature resistance coefficients in the transition region (see Chapter 1), are directly related to T. The effect of the characteristics of rubber on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials in the transition region is mainly reduced to their influence on Tlow.