Kimberlites: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology by Roger H. Mitchell

By Roger H. Mitchell

This is a e-book concerning the petrology of kimberlites. it isn't approximately top mantle xenoliths, diamonds, or prospecting for kimberlites. the thing of the booklet is to supply a entire survey and critique of the advances that have been made in kimberlite reviews during the last twenty-five years. Kimberlites are infrequent rock varieties; although, their relative obscurity is overriden by way of their financial and petrological value to a point which isn't shared with the commoner types of igneous rocks. Kimberlites are as a result of curiosity to a various staff of earth scientists, starting from isotope g~ochemists desirous about the evolution of the mantle, to volcanologists wondering the origins of diatremes, to exploration geologists looking new occurrences of the diamondiferous kinds. a standard issue necessary to all of those actions is an intensive figuring out of the features of kimberlites. For the petrologist, kimberlites are intriguing and not easy gadgets for research. Their petrographic variety, advanced mineralogy and geochemistry, and strange variety of intrusion offer never-ending possibilities for exciting speculation and conjecture bearing on their foundation and evolution. Kimberlites are part of a large spectrum of continental intra-cratonic magmatism. purely by way of knowing all the elements of this task intimately might we make development in our realizing of the whole.

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Sample text

Underlying these well-stratified tuffs are poorly stratified tuffs and tuff breccias containing fragments of kimberlite, country rock, and mantle-derived xenoliths cemented by pyroclastic material similar to that of the overlying tuffs. Complex folds, attributed by Mannard (1962) to slumping, are common. Shards of glass, cauliflower bombs, scoriaceous materials, and pelletal lapilli were not observed by Mannard (1962). Bedded pyroclastics occur at the Winkler Crater, Kansas (Brookins 1970) but detailed descriptions have not been published.

Primary serpentine, commonly Fe rich, occurs within the groundmass or as discrete segregations. ) 10. Feldspars and feldspathoids are absent in kimberlites. 11. Primary and secondary (after melilite) andradite-schorlomite garnets are absent in kimberlites. 6. 21 PSEUDOKIMBERLITES The diversity of opinion regarding the nature of kimberlite has had some unfortunate consequences in that many rocks, which should be placed within other petrological associations, have been labeled kimberlites. Such interpretations have resulted in unwarranted speculation regarding the relationships between kimberlites and other magma types.

The epiclastic succession is complex and resembles a series of overlapping alluvial fans together with lake-bottom deposits. The epiclastic rocks overlie "tuffaceous" kimberlites. Detailed modem sedimentological-volcanological·studies of epiclastic kimberlites have not yet been published, and brief geological descriptions are available for only a few localities. At the Mwadui pipe, Edwards and Howkins (1966) have noted that epiclastic kimberlites overlie unsorted kimberlite breccias consisting of boulders of granite set in a matrix of altered kimberlite.

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