By Prof. J. A. A. Stockwin Akira Kudo
This quantity ways the historical past of Japanese-German family from a company heritage viewpoint. beginning with an summary of Japanese-German family members which makes a speciality of the surroundings, ideas and sorts of inter-firm relatives, Akira Kudo then makes use of case reports to supply a broader photograph, prior to ultimately contemplating procedure, organisational process and know-how and administration move within the mild of difficulties pointed out past.
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Additional info for Japanese-German Business Relations: Co-operation and Rivalry in the Interwar Period
27 2 Licensing versus direct investment As we saw in the previous section, in the 1920s Japan became an important market for German corporations as Japanese demand for German technology grew. With Japan’s progress toward industrialization, especially of its heavy and chemical industries, exports of machinery and chemical raw and intermediate materials from Germany expanded. Generally speaking, as the export of products steadily increased, licensing and direct investment were not seriously considered by German companies.
It suffered from lack of production lines in some principal dyes, such as synthetic indigo, as well as from limited areas of export. Therefore, the Japanese side was afraid that it would tie its hands if it concluded a comprehensive agreement. Rather, it preferred to conclude a series of partial agreements and to aim at developing new products, while expanding its production capabilities and widening its export areas from China to Indo-China and British India. G. Farben as well as those of the three-party cartel were entirely different from those of the Japanese side.
Although his export plans were not realized, in 1924 the company signed a license agreement with Kawasaki Shipbuilding through the intermediation of C. Illies& Co. 49 3 Direct investment (1) German investment in Japan According to a survey on foreign direct investment conducted by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in 1931, eighty-eight foreign-affiliated manufacturing companies were operating in Japan, excluding trading and insurance firms. Of these, 36 were American, 21 British, 17 German, 3 Swiss, 2 Chinese, and 1 each 27 Japanese–German business relations for France, Luxembourg, and Czechoslovakia, with 6 of unknown origin.