By G. Deconninck
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Additional resources for Introduction to Radioanalytical Physics
9 Typical cross section curves for nuclear reactions, (a) Isolated resonances in nuclear reaction cross sections; (b) cross section excitation curve for proton induced reactions on light nucleus; (c) cross section excitation curve for a, r, a projectiles on a light nucleus; (d) inelastic scattering cross section for protons on a heavy nucleus 38 A comparison of reaction cross section calculated from the optical model (59) and from the simple classical formula (60) is given in Fig. 10. The cross section is rapidly increasing and reaches the classical limiting value which is simply jriP.
The stopping cross section of carbon atoms is greater when the atoms are bound by a triple or double bond than when bound by a single bond, whereas for a hydrogen atom it is less for a double and triple bond than for a single bond. The situation may be summarized by saying that errors of more than 10% are possible when Bragg's rule is applied to compounds containing a large proportion of light atoms. 4 Charged particle range For heavy charged particles the range R is defined by E. de S(e) ■ß=f^o (20) I t is thus simply equal to the path length for all the energy to be lost if electron collisions only are taken into account.
This feature is absent when different reaction mechanisms are in competition. An important example is the resonant elastic scattering process which is discussed in Chapter 3. With increasing excitation energy the width Γ of the compound nucleus levels increases and the distance between neighbouring levels decreases rapidly, many overlapping resonances contribute to the cross section at a given excitation energy. Thus above a few MeV acceleration energy the cross section becomes a smooth function of energy since it receives contribution from a multitude of overlapping levels.