Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics by R. M. Helsdon

By R. M. Helsdon

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Find the volume of 6 lb of carbon dioxide at 60 lbf/in2 and 80 °F. Answer. R = G/m = 1545/44 = 351 ft lbf/lb °F, pV= MRTbecomes (60 X 144) V= 6 x 35-1 x (460 + 80), V= 13 16 ft3. EXAMPLE. Find the pressure of 10 lb-mol of oxygen when occupying a volume of 40 ft3 at 600°C. Answer. 2 48 THE PROPERTIES OF IDEAL GASES PROBLEM 1. Calculate the figures to fill the vacant spaces assuming the gases to behave as ideal gases. Gas (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) N2 O2 H2 SO2 H20 CO CO2 CH 4 C3H6 CsHis Pressure lbf/in2 (abs) 200 40 — 60 2 500 — 10 6 40 Volume ft3 3 20 4 — 1000 60 200 2 — 800 Mass 2 1b — 0-5 lb 3 1b — lb 601b 2 lb-mol — lb-mol 0-1 lb-mol 3 lb-mol Temperature —°F 60°F 400°F 100°F 160°F —°C 30°C 90°C 200°C —°c EXAMPLE.

12). The following notes apply to all the cycles: 53 APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS (a) During an isothermal process at temperature Γ, the end of the cylinder is heat conducting to allow the necessary interchange of heat energy between the air and an external heat reservoir maintained at the same temperature T. ) (b) During an isentropic process the cylinder and piston are heat insulated. (c) During a constant volume or constant pressure process the end of the cylinder is heat conducting to permit the interchange of heat energy with external reservoirs.

Joule cycle FIG. 49. Joule cycle. Substituting in (i) gives: η = 1 - l/iJr-Wr. Now rp = pcjpi, = (vb/vc)v = rJ, r (r-i)/ r = r (r-i) a n d η = i _ i/,. The diesel cycle (Fig. 50) This consists of two isentropics, one constant volume and one constant pressure process. Let rv = Va/Vb, β = Vc/Vb, 56 STANDARD AIR CYCLES Diesel cycle F I G . 50. Diesel cycle. whence Vc/Vd = ß/rv, ß i - Mcp(Tc - Tb), V=l- Now TÖ Q2IQ1 =l-(Td- = Tc = ß 2 = Mcv{Td TO)IY(TC Ta\ - Tb). Tar^\ Tbß = Tar(v-i)ß9 Td = Tc(ßlrvyr-V = Tary>ß(ß/rvyy-V η = 1 ~ (Taßy - Ta)MT/v-Vß = Taßr9 - ΓατίΤ1)), 1-(β^-1)/γ(ρ-1)Γ^1>.

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