By Pao K. Wang
Atmospheric ice debris play an important roles in cloud and hurricane dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, climatological strategies, and different atmospheric approaches. Ice Microdynamics introduces the effortless physics and dynamics of atmospheric ice debris in clouds; next sections clarify their formation from water vapor, why ice crystal form and focus in cirrus clouds effect the heating of air, and describe how ice crystals cleanse the ambience through scavenging aerosol particles.Pao Wang's lucid writing kind will entice atmospheric scientists, climatologists, and meteorologists with an curiosity in knowing the position of ice debris within the surroundings of our planet.
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Extra resources for Ice Microdynamics
The reader is re› ferred to two papers (Wang, 1987, 1997) for more detailed descriptions of var› ious cross-sectiona l shapes and how to generate them. It is emphasize d here that Eqs. 15 for the sake of clarity. The degree of flatnessof both surface types is controlled by the paramete r e. " 2 . MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF ICE PARTICLE SIZE AND SHAPE 25 N FIG. 14. A hexagona l plate generate d by Eq. 397. The surface and cross-sectiona l areas and volumes of the particles generate d by Eqs. 21) can be easily obtained.
One may refer to Courant and John (1965) for the formula used below. (i) Cross-Sectional Area We restrict ourselves here to the calculation of axial cross-sectiona l area of a conical hydrometeor . 38) 2. 39) is given in Appendix A. , the volume does depend on X. 40) There are two approache s in this integration: a series representatio n or an exact solution. The former has the benefit of faster calculation with relatively small error; but the latter is more elegant in the expression . The details of the calculation are given in Appendix B.
The typical computing time for 10,000 time steps is on the order of a few hours on a Cray X/MP computer. The computation on a Cray-2 computer is somewha t faster. It appears that the SOR scheme in solving the pressure equation is the main bottleneck of the computation. The grid size used in this study represent s a compromise between accuracy and available computing resource . 5. 4, respectively. Their dimensions are chosen to overlap those adopted by some previous work (Schlamp et al, 1975, 1976; Pitter et al, 1973; Pitter and Pruppacher , 1974; Pitter, 1977; Mille r and Wang, 1989) so that the results can be compared .