By Valeri S. Gshalaev, Aleksandra C. Demirchan
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Extra info for Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Properties and Applications
Reprinted from Ref.  with permission. Other micrographs of nano-CDHA coatings biomimetically deposited on NaOH-treated Ti6Al4V surfaces might be found in Ref. . They are capable in performing bone formation and promoting direct osseointegration with juxtaposed bone [652-655]. For example, an enhanced new bone formation can be Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite ... 31 clearly seen on nanophase HA-coated tantalum compared to micro-scale HA-coated tantalum and non-coated tantalum (see Figure 2 in Ref.
The initial crystallite average size (~ 35 nm) was enlarged by a factor of about 4 within the first 100 min after mixing the powder with the physiological solution and no more structural changes were detected during the following period . In the light of the aforementioned studies, presumably, the discovered X-ray amorphous component of the initial powder was located on the surface of nanodimensional HA. 6. 1. General Nanotechnological Approaches The synthesis of nano-scale materials has received considerable attention and their novel properties can find numerous applications, for example, in the biomedical field.
After implantation, such biocomposites can be incorporated into bone metabolism. Due to processing difficulties and poor mechanical properties of bulk calcium orthophosphates, their applications are currently confined to nonload-bearing implants and porous bodies/scaffolds. Porous 3D biocomposites of nanodimensional HA and collagen/polymer mimic bones in composition and microstructure and can be employed as a matrix for the tissue engineering of bone . Owing to their low mechanical properties, the use of calcium orthophosphates in loadbearing applications is rather limited: calcium orthophosphates are too stiff and brittle for such use.