By Samir Mameri, Satoshi Shinoda, Hiroshi Tsukube (auth.), Kiyoshi Matsumoto (eds.)
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44 2 Benzene Ring(s) Containing Crownophanes . . . . . . . . . 46 3 Naphthalene Ring(s) Containing Crownophanes . . . . . . . . 3 Other Condensed Polyaromatic Ring(s) Containing Crownophanes Fluorenone and Stilbene Ring(s) Containing Crownophanes . . Anthracene Ring(s) Containing Crownophanes . . . . . . Pyrene Rings Containing Crownophanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Heteroaromatic Ring Containing Crownophanes . Pyridine Ring(s) Containing Crownophanes .
Although a large number of target anions of natural origin are water-soluble, some heterocycle–lanthanide complexes allowed their sensing at a practical level. Their synthetic strategies and sensing characteristics are discussed. 28 S. Mameri et al. 1 Heterocycle–Lanthanide Complexes for Anion Recognition and Sensing The trivalent lanthanide cations possess characteristic 4f open-shell conﬁgurations and exhibit interesting chemical and physical properties. 89 ˚ complexes, most of them prefer high coordination numbers (8–10).
This formed stable complexes with Eu3+ and Tb3+ cations, in which two water molecules directly coordinated with the lanthanide centers . Addition of NO3 – anion greatly increased the luminescence intensity of both Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes, while F– , Cl– , or acetate anion induced less pronounced changes. The displacement of the water molecules by one NO3 – anion led to a ternary complex exhibiting the enhanced luminescence intensity (A in Fig. 18). Addition of one more equivalent of NO3 – anion dissociated one bipyridine, and produced another type of ternary complex (B in Fig.