Green Solvents I: Properties and Applications in Chemistry by Shadpour Mallakpour, Zahra Rafiee (auth.), Ali Mohammad

By Shadpour Mallakpour, Zahra Rafiee (auth.), Ali Mohammad (eds.)

The traditional solvents utilized in chemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical and separation tactics symbolize a very good problem to eco-friendly chemistry as a result of their toxicity and flammability. because the starting of “the 12 ideas of eco-friendly Chemistry” in 1998, a basic attempt has been made to switch traditional solvents with environmentally benign substitutes. Water has been the preferred selection to this point, by way of ionic drinks, surfactant, supercritical fluids, fluorous solvents, liquid polymers, bio-solvents and switchable solvent platforms.

Green Solvents quantity I and II provides a all through assessment of the different sorts of solvents and discusses their wide functions in fields comparable to extraction, natural synthesis, biocatalytic techniques, creation of good chemical compounds, removing of hydrogen sulphide, biochemical ameliorations, composite fabric, power garage units and polymers. those volumes are written via top foreign specialists and canopy all attainable facets of eco-friendly solvents’ homes and purposes to be had in today’s literature.

Green Solvents quantity I and II is a useful advisor to scientists, R&D business experts, researchers, upper-level undergraduates and graduate scholars, Ph.D. students, university and collage professors operating within the box of chemistry and biochemistry.

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This fact is particularly important in industrial scale-up processes to replace the use of hazardous and flammable organic solvents. Water is, obviously, the cleanest and safest available solvent, but it is not commonly used, as most organic compounds are poorly soluble in water. This issue can be overcome by using superheated water (>100°C) under microwave irradiation. Water is a good absorber for microwave energy and has been successfully employed as a solvent for various microwave-promoted organic syntheses.

Proteins and ceramics), and powder coating. Water has good environmental and other advantages, although need more extreme conditions of Tc 647 K (374°C) and Pc 221 bar. SCF water is being used, at a research level, as a medium for the oxidative destruction of toxic waste. There is a particular attention in both supercritical and nearcritical water owing to the behavior of its polarity. , solubility, diffusivity, viscosity, and heat capacity) are different from those of ordinary liquids and gases and are tunable simply by changing the pressure and temperature.

The preparation of chitosan scaffolds loaded with dexamethasone has been reported for tissue engineering applications using SCF technology [168]. The SC-CO2 has been applied as a solvent to obtain ceramides from wool fibers [169]. A SCF-assisted technique has been employed for the formation of 3D scaffolds, which consists of three subprocesses: the formation of a polymeric gel loaded with a solid porogen, the drying of the gel using SC-CO2, and the washing with water to eliminate the porogen [170].

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