By William M. Nelson
This paintings discusses ideas of environmentally sound chemistry, info defining features of solvents acceptable for eco-friendly chemistry, and provides functional guidance for choosing solvents for particular occasions. assurance encompasses chemical perform and solvent utilization, solvation and solvent phenomena, eco-friendly solvents in eco-friendly chemistry, standards for choice and layout of eco-friendly solvents, and eco-friendly solvents for educational and commercial chemistry and traditional chemical use. a last bankruptcy examines the connections among ecology and economics. writer info isn't really given.
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Additional info for Green Solvents for Chemistry: Perspectives and Practice
The remainder of the solvent system may contain liquids that are classified as flammable or combustible liquids. Inherent limitations in these systems relate to product viscosity, accuracy in predicting overall fire hazard, ability to assess physical changes of state when a product is tested, and test method reliability and ease of use (Scheffey and Tabar, 1996). , 1997) from these activities. Consideration of these sources can immensely affect the evaluation of green solvents, when used here. Many industrial activities, such as construction, use solvents.
The stronger the solvating ability of a solvent is, the more it decreases the thermodynamic activity of the reactants and their reactivity, that is, their availability for the reaction. A linear correlation has been found between the activation Gibbs free energy of a series of SN2 reactions and the acceptor number (AN) of the solvents (Marcus, 1998). The reactivity (or availability for reaction) can be influenced by solvation. To illustrate, if a salt with a large organic cation, for example, tetraethylammonium, rather than a small cation, for example, sodium (see below), can be used, the importance of the solubility consideration becomes smaller (Miller and Parker, 1961).
Chemical Practice and Solvent Usage 23 Utilizing highly selective conditions can mean that separation, isolation, and purification of the product will be significantly less difficult. Since separation and purification processes often create environmental burdens, solvents promoting high selectivity are very desirable in green chemistry. When the overall yield of a process is increased by 10 or 20%, less material is ending up in waste streams and more is being converted into product. Can a solvent play a role in improving atom economy (Trost, 1991)?