By A. I. Berezhnoi
In the last decade considering that glass-ceramics first turned mass-pro duced articles of trade, they've got turn into a favored topic for learn and invention, as attested to via the 773 references brought up during this publication. chanced on nearly unintentionally in the course of re seek on photosensitive glasses, thermally crystallized glass ceramics were unique by means of the speedy velocity in their utili zation for unique new items. This promise has been famous in the course of the global, and unique contributions have seemed from approximately each kingdom having an ongoing glassmaking strength. relatively a variety of were the guides and the tips, clinical and technolOgi cal, issuing from the USSR. For numerous years, the yearly All Union convention at the Glassy kingdom has been ruled by way of papers on catalyzed crystallization of glasses. in regards to new prod uct strains, we know about slag-based sitaUs (glass-ceramics) and in addition approximately distinctiveness goods derived by means of radiation-assisted crystalli zation in glasses, photo-sitaUs. A. I. Berezhnoi has written a complete overview of the courses in this subject, which incorporates a balanced weighting to the contributions from the USSR and america, and likewise introduces advances from Britain, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Japan, and different facilities of activity.
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Extra info for Glass-Ceramics and Photo-Sitalls
The Ce3 + absorbs ultraviolet radiation and fluoresces just like the Cu+ ion. In silver-containing glasses, in analogy with the copper-containing glasses, the silver ion, by taking on an electron, changes into atomic silver ; thus (10) The atomic silver is able to color glass only during heating, when the formation of silver aggregates takes place according to the following reaction : x·Ag-+Agx• (11) These particles can later serve as crystallization nuclei for the prime glass body. According to other investigators [80, 81], the quantum of light, during its interaction with the photosensitive silver-containing glass, depending on its energy, either excites the silver ion or oxidizes it, with the formation of a free electron: (12) SEC.
Irradiation at temperatures higher than 220°C resulted in the appearance of a new band B which heavily overlaps band A, and a weak absorption band of colloidal Ag with a maximum at 410 nm. Thus, the visible image started to form directly during the irradiation process. At temperatures higher than 270°C, the A band did not appear, and only the B band with a maximum at 250 nm and the colloidal band (both with a much higher intensity) were formed, so 46 PHOTOSENSITIVE GLASSES [CH. I that no additional development through heat treatment was necessary.
This noncorrespondence is explained by the fact that due to the influence of the electric and the magnetic fields of the adjacent atoms, ions, and molecules, the energy levels of the silver or the cerium ions may vary greatly, as a result of which ionization of other ions and atoms is possible. According to Stookey , the photochemical process may be represented by (1) the following reaction: (14) 34 ECHo I PHOTOSENSITIVE GLASSES where AX is the ion A absorbing light and having a valency x, hv is the quantum of absorbed energy, and e W is the excited photoelectron; and (2) the reaction (15) where MY is the metal ion of valency y (y = 1 for Cu, Ag, and, possibly, Au), (M0)w is the metal atom with the excess energy imparted by the photoelectron, and W is the excess energy given off in the form of heat or light.