Fundamentals of Radiobiology by Z. M. Bacq and Peter Alexander (Eds.)

By Z. M. Bacq and Peter Alexander (Eds.)

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10 M E A S U R E M E N T OF D O S E If the dose is expressed in roentgens the basic measurement is the determination of the number of ion pairs formed in a volume of gas. The dose in rads requires knowledge of the amount of energy deposited in 1 g of the irradiated material. The absolute determination therefore necessitates an energy measurement and in practice calorimetry is almost invariably used. That is the amount of heat developed in a material in which no overall chemical changesf take place on irradiation is measured and the dose in rads is then immediately given.

They form separate tracks and are referred to as δ-rays. The effect of these electrons, which are ejected in all directions from the track, is to introduce branching along a primary electron track. The branches are, of course, shorter than the track of the parent electron. With radiations of high specific ionizations the total range of all the δ-rays may be greater than that of the primary particle (cf. Fig. 1-9). Thus the ionization track of the heavy particle consists of a central core which has the high specific ionization, but from this core emanate, in all directions, the δ-rays which have a much lower ion density.

V A L E N T I N E , J. M . and C U R R A N , S. C , Prog. Physics, 1 9 5 8 , 2 1 , 1 14. , Nature, 1 9 5 3 , 1 7 1 , 658 15. L A Z O , R. , D E W H U R S T , H . A . , / . Chem. , 1 9 5 4 , 22, 1 3 7 0 ; D O N A L D S O N , D . M . J. chim. Phys. 1 9 5 4 , 2 2 , 4 3 8 16. G R A Y , L . H . , Brit. J. Radiol, Suppl. No. 1, 1 9 4 7 , p. 7 17. Y A G O D A , H . , Radioactive Measurements with Nuclear Emulsions, John Wiley, New York, 1949 18. G R A Y , L . H . , Proc. Roy. Soc, 1 9 2 8 , Α 1 2 2 , 648 19.

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