By Michael J. Kidger
The heritage of optical layout has engendered theoretical paintings originating in numerous international locations, and utilizing diverse nomenclature and signal conventions. Michael Kidger used to be adept at picking themes that may be worthy within the mainstream of optical layout, decreasing idea to the necessities and rewriting it utilizing a standard nomenclature and signal conference. This paintings, released after Kidger's loss of life with the aid of his colleagues, presents all of the crucial and top parts of his classes taught around the globe on lens and optical design.
- record of Symbols
- Geometrical Optics
- Paraxial Optics
- Ray Tracing
- Chromatic Aberration
- Seidel Aberrations
- rules of Lens Design
- Achromatic Doublet Objectives
- Petzval Lenses and Telephoto Objectives
- Eyepieces and Afocal Systems
- Thermal Imaging Lenses
- Catadioptric Systems
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Extra info for Fundamental Optical Design
47), in order to derive the important result Paraxial Optics 33 n′ n = . 48) With this result, we can continue the discussion of nodal points and principal points that was shown in Fig. 5. For lenses in air the refractive indices in the object space and the image space are both equal to unity, and, in this case, f = f′. 52) Therefore, the positions of P and N in Fig. 5 coincide, and P′ and N′ also coincide. We can now see, in general terms, where these nodal points and principal points will be, for some simple cases.
We also have to remember that in most finite-conjugate systems the image is inverted. This of course means that the magnification is negative, and this is the situation shown in Fig. 10. 10. Transverse magnification. 2 Afocal systems and angular magnification For the case when both the object and image are at infinity, the transverse magnification, as calculated by Eq. 32), becomes indeterminate. A system of this type is known as an afocal system; examples of common afocal systems are laser beam expanders and binoculars.
It is because the paraxial treatment can provide the designer with insight into the performance of the system with a modest effort. 1 The sign convention The progress of geometrical optics has not been helped by the existence of several different sign conventions. Before we begin our discussion of paraxial optics, it is necessary to define our conventions for ray positions and angles. In Fig. 1 below we have a ray that intersects the optical axis on the righthand side of the vertex of the surface.