By Dianzuo Wang
This booklet summarizes the author’s findings at the sensible precept of flotation reagents, amassed during the last few a long time. the basics of and methods universal to floor chemistry are utilized to check the reagents’ constitution and function, in addition to their interplay with minerals. particularly, the booklet establishes the theoretical standards for collector functionality. it is usually the quantum chemistry parameters, steric configuration, HOMO and LUMO floor of varied reagents. The publication bargains a precious source for all collage graduate scholars, researchers and R&D engineers in minerals processing and extractive metallurgy who desire to discover cutting edge reagents and applied sciences that result in extra power effective and environmentally sustainable solutions.
Read or Download Flotation Reagents: Applied Surface Chemistry on Minerals Flotation and Energy Resources Beneficiation: Volume 1: Functional Principle PDF
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Extra resources for Flotation Reagents: Applied Surface Chemistry on Minerals Flotation and Energy Resources Beneficiation: Volume 1: Functional Principle
3 Adsorption of Amphoteric Collector in Electric Double Layer General form of amphoteric collector is as follows: R1 X1 R2 X2 where R1 refers to the alkyls with long chain; R2 refers to the alkyls with short chain in usual; X1 means the cationic groups such as –NH–, –AsH–, P N , –NH4, As , , –PH4; and X2 means the anionic groups such as –COOH, – SO3H, –SH, –SO4H, –PO(OH)2, and –AsO(OH)2. The dissociation of amphoteric collector depends on acidic or alkaline medium. Taking amino acid for an example, the dissociation process is given as follows: RNHCH(CH3 ÞCH2 COOH þ OHÀ RNHCH(CH3 ÞCH2 COOÀ þ H2 O RNHCH(CH3 ÞCH2 COOH þ H þ RNH2þ CH(CH3 ÞCH2 COOH Amino acid is dissociated into anion in alkaline solution, but cation in acidic solution.
When the solution pH is near the pHPZC of mineral, the coadsorption of nonionic molecules is more marked. But it also decreases the selectivity of electrostatic interaction between collector and mineral. The effect of weak electrolyte collector on mineral separation is stronger that of strong electrolyte at a low concentration. For example, the pHPZC value of corundum is about 9. When solution pH = 6, the charges of mineral are positive. Anionic collector is effective in flotation. When solution pH = 11, the charges of mineral are negative and the cationic collector is effective in flotation.
Those compounds are characterized by stable chemical properties, widespread, and long-term preservation. Usually, physical adsorption (including electric double layer adsorption) of flotation collector occurs on the mineral which are comprised of these elements. Chemical adsorption only occurs on the minerals which are comprised of those elements with large atomic number or high valence number (such as Ca and Ba and so on). (2) Chalcophile elements Chalcophile elements include the elements of heavy nonferrous metals and precious metals.