By M.S. Paterson
The first goal of this monograph is to provide the present wisdom of brittle houses of rocks as decided in laboratory experiments. The imperative features of brittle habit are defined with specific awareness to the elemental actual points. therefore, the ebook offers an invaluable advent to the fundamentals of rock homes for engineering and earth technological know-how purposes. additionally, it serves as a consultant for graduate scholars and non experts via featuring the appropriate history fabric and the place it may be came upon. For the hot variation yet another bankruptcy has been further, and virtually 1/2 the chapters were widely revised and the others up-to-date.
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Extra resources for Experimental Rock Deformation — The Brittle Field
1972), and Logan and Handin (1971) also found somewhat higher strain rate sensitivity in Westerly Granite at intermediate strain rates, this trend being accentuated under elevated confining pressures. Strain rate sensitivity in fracture strength has also been demonstrated under other types of loading (Price and Knill, 1966; Willard and McWilliams, 1969b). Thus, there is generally a small influence of temperature or time on brittle fracture, which may vary with the material and the situation. This observation points to there being some participation of thermally activated processes in brittle fracture.
14a-d. Dependence of differential stress at failure in triaxial compression on the inclination of the cleavage plane to the compression axis for foliated rocks at the confining pressures shown: a Phyllite. ) b-d A slate and two shales. (After McLamore and Gray, 1967) 44 Experimental Studies on the Brittle Fracture Stress (1972b) and McLamore and Gray (1967). Other triaxial studies have been made by Jaeger (1960b), Donath (1961, 1962, 1964, 1972a), Dayre and Sirieys (1964), Hobbs (1964b), Hoek (1964), Chenevert and Gatlin (1965), Avramova and Stancheva (1966), Deklotz, Brown, and Stemler (1966), Sirieys (1966), Youash (1966), Fayed (1968), Akai, Yamamoto, and Arioka (1970), Masure (1970), McGill and Raney (1970), Pomeroy, Hobbs, and Mahmoud (1971), Attewell and Sandford (1974), McCabe and Koerner (1975), and others.
The dependence of the differential stress 01 - 03 at shear failure on the orientation Q for the single-plane-of-weakness model of anisotropic rock (see text for details): a Cartesian plot, b polar plot 47 Theoretical Analysis the failure occurs at the Coulomb stress (Sect. 3) = 2. 1 - smifJ (To cos ifJ + U3 sin ifJ), and the predicted failure plane is oriented at 1/4 7r - 1/2 ifJ, independently of the orientation of the plane of weakness. Relations identical to the above have been derived from an equivalent Griffith crack model in which it is assumed (I) that there are two populations of cracks, long cracks lying parallel to a given plane (the "plane of weakness") and short cracks randomly oriented, and (2) that the cracks are closed and subject to friction in the relative sliding of their surfaces (Hoek, 1964; Walsh and Brace, 1964; see also Barron, 1971a).