By Sanjeev Saksena; A John Camm; et al
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Extra info for Electrophysiological disorders of the heart
Finally, the gap junction establishes electrical and metabolic communication between neighboring cells. Six individual connexin proteins (primarily Cx45 in the SA node, Cx40 to Cx45 in the atria, and Cx43 in the ventricle) combine to form heteromeric connexon hemi-channels that dock with apposing connexons from the adjoining cell. 7 In addition to phosphorylating membrane proteins, PKA also phosphorylates contractile proteins to decrease their Ca2+ sensitivity, thereby promoting muscle relaxation.
Representative optical maps demonstrate slowing of conductance velocity when hearts were treated with a relatively selective gap junction uncoupler, 18-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). ) generation and propagation in the mechanisms of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias and advancements in recording electrical activity during stimulation or defibrillation have all been made possible through optical mapping techniques. 35,36 Although the repertoire of available dyes has grown, voltagesensitive dyes remain the cornerstone of cardiac optical mapping.
Recombinant AAV is a single-stranded DNA virus that has no known pathogenicity in humans, has minimal immunogenicity, and transduces nondividing cells. On conversion to double-stranded DNA, the recombinant AAV vector remains stable for years as an episomal concatamer in postmitotic host nuclei. 40 Lentivirus is a single-stranded RNA retrovirus derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) that transduces a wide array of cell types through genomic insertion. Genomic integration is the major advantage of lentiviral vectors over adenovirus and AAV systems because integrated genes can be passed on to daughter cells.