By Jürgen Heinze (auth.), Professor Dr. Eberhard Steckhan (eds.)
Contents/Information: J. Heinze, Freiburg, FRG: Electronically accomplishing Polymers
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As a spectroscopic technique, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has noticeable awesome development over the last twenty years, either as a strategy and in its functions. this present day the functions of NMR span a variety of clinical disciplines, from physics to biology to medication. every one quantity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance includes a mix of annual and biennial reviews which jointly supply accomplished of the literature in this subject.
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Additional info for Electrochemistry IV
18:393 187. Beck F, Oberst M, Braun B (1987) DECHEMA Mon. 109:457 42 Electronically Conducting Polymers 188. Baughman RH, Delanoy P, Murthy NS, Miller GG, Eckhardt H, Shacklette LW (1984) Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 106:415 189. Maxfield M, Mu SL, MacDiarmid AG (1985) J. Electrochem. Soc. 132:838 190. MacDiarmid AG, Kaner RB (t986) in: Skotheim TA (ed) Handbook of conducting polymers, M. Dekker, New York p 689 191. MacDiarmid AG, Maxfield MR (1987) in: Linford RG (ed) Electrochemical science and technology of polymers-l, Elsevier Applied Science, London, p 67 192.
This technique involves slowly stepwise incrementing the voltage of the electrochemical cell and recording the charge removed from (or injected to) the polymer after each voltage step. Since the cell current in EVS measurements can be kept arbitrarily low, non-equilibrium effects such as IR-losses, over-potentials, and diffusional phenomena are virtually eliminated. For the conducting hetero-aromatic polymers a typical hysteresis in charging and discharging cycles using the EVS technique is observed 207-209) This intrinsic hysteresis corresponds to the asymmetry between the oxidation and reduction potentials in the CV experiment.
Southampton Electrochemistry Group (1985) Instrumental methods in electrochemistry, Ellis Horwood, Chichester t13. Lang P, Chao F, Costa M, Garnier F (1987) Polymer 28:668 114. Fleischmann M, Thirsk HR (1963) in: Delahay P (ed) Advances in electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering, Wiley-Interscience, New York, vot 3 p 123 115. Schultze JW, Lohrengel MM, RoB D (1978) Electrochim. Acta 28:973 116. Hillmann AR (1987) in: Linford R (ed) Electrochemical technology of polymers, Elsevier, London, p 103 117.